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Part 36

STATE STANDARD BUILDING CODE FOR PLACES OF PUBLIC ASSEMBLY

(Statutory authority: Labor Law, §§ 27-a, 27, 29, 200, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 474-a)

 

SUBPART 36-1

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec.

 

§ 36-1.1 Application

     This Part applies to all places of public assembly as defined under subdivision 12 of section 2 of the Labor Law to which article 17 of the Labor Law applies.

§ 36-1.2 Alterations to existing places.

     (a)   Any alteration hereafter made to an existing place of public assembly which increases its capacity or affects the status of its exits is subject to the requirements as set forth herein for places hereafter constructed.

     (b)   Where any requirement of this Part is based upon the capacity of the place of public assembly, such capacity shall be figured from the conditions which exist or are designed to exist, after alteration, conversion or change in type of occupancy.

     (c)   No provision of this Part as amended effective July 1, 1957, requires or is intended to require any structural alterations in or to a building existing prior to July 1, 1957, which complies structurally with the provisions of this Part or with variations granted by the board in effect prior thereto, except as may be needed to carry out the provisions of subdivision (a) of this section. Such a building constitutes one constructed in accordance with this Part.

§ 36-1.3 Administration and enforcement.

     (a)   Responsibility for compliance.  (1)  No person shall suffer or permit to be used or occupied as a place of public assembly, any place not constructed, equipped and maintained in accordance with this Part.

     (2)  No person shall suffer or permit any place of public assembly to be occupied beyond its capacity as stated in the certificate of compliance or the approval of the enforcing authority.

     (b)   Approval of plans.  (1)  No person shall construct, convert, alter or enlarge a place of public assembly otherwise than in accordance with plans and specifications previously approved by the commissioner, or, where there is a local enforcing authority, by such authority. Plans for tents used as places of public assembly for over 300 persons and not permanently located, shall be approved as above required at least once per year prior to the erection of such tents in New York State.

     (2)  Plans and specifications for approval must be prepared by a licensed professional engineer or registered architect and must be submitted in triplicate. Plans must be drawn to scale and shall include a plot plan showing the location of the lot, the structure in which the place of public assembly is located, the relation to grade, adjoining streets, courts, alleys or buildings, the north point, the proposed construction and the location of existing and proposed exits.

     (3)  With such plans there must also be submitted when requested a statement signed by a licensed professional engineer or registered architect, to the effect that such measurements, observations, calculations and tests have been made as are necessary to determine the bearing power of the soil and the safe live, dead, snow and wind loads for all structural members, and that the plans and specifications have been prepared in accordance therewith. Copies of computations, when requested, must also be provided.

     (c)   Notice to enforcing authority.  Upon completion of the construction of any place of public assembly, the owner or his agent shall notify the enforcing authority in writing that the place is ready for inspection to determine whether it conforms to the law and this Part, before it is used for assembly purposes, except that in the case of tents, bleachers and other similar temporary places of public assembly, such notice may be given orally.

     (d)   Certificate of compliance.  No permanent place of public assembly shall be opened for public use unless a certificate of compliance be posted as required by section 473 of the Labor Law and no temporary place shall be opened for public use unless prior approval has been granted by the enforcing authority.

§ 36-1.4  Definitions.

     (a)   As used herein the following terms mean:

     (1)   Approved.  In compliance with a subsisting resolution of approval adopted by the board.

     (2)  Assembly.  The people occupying a place of public assembly.

     (3)  Assembly hall.  Any building or part of a building used or designed as as a place of public assembly other than a theatre.

     (4)  Auditorium.  That portion of a building occupied by an audience or gathering of persons.

     (5)  Balcony.  The first seating tier above the main floor. (Also means the open air portion of a horizontal exit--see definition, horizontal exit, paragraph [27] of this subdivision.)

     (6)  Board.  The Board of Standards and Appeals of the State of New York.

     (7)  Capacity.  In respect to a place of public assembly, means the maximum number of persons who may lawfully assemble therein.

     (8)  Commissioner.  The Industrial Commissioner of the State of New York.

     (9)  Court.  An unoccupied, unobstructed space, open for its entire area to the sky and maintained at all times available as an escape route from the place of public assembly.

     (10)  Enforcing authority.  The official charged in a specific case with the enforcement of this Part pursuant to section 472 of the Labor Law.

     (11)  Existing.  Constructed as, or converted to, a place of public assembly prior to July 1, 1957.

     (12)  Exit.  Any means of egress from a room, tier, building or other occupied area.

     (13)  Exit door.  A door installed in an exitway.

     (14)  Exitway.  A complete way of passage from an exit to a public street, road or other acceptable open area. It includes all doorways, stairways, hallways, passageways and courts which occur in its course.

     (15)  Fire door.  An approved fire-resistive door together with its frame and hardware.

     (16)  Fireproof and fire-resisting construction.  (As applied to buildings.) Construction prescribed as fireproof or fire-resisting by Industrial Code Part 7 relating to fire-resistive construction.

     (17)  Fire-resistance.  A term referring to the degree of resistance to the passage of fire or heat, or to their effects, provided by various materials and methods of construction as determined and set forth in Industrial Code Part 7 and expressed in units of time.

     (18)  Fire wall.  A wall which complies with the requirements for a fire wall of Industrial Code Part 7.

     (19)  Fire window.  A stationary or self-closing window which has a fire-resistance rating of at least three quarters of an hour approved in accordance with the requirements of Industrial Code Part 7. Where moving sash is used, such window shall close automatically by the action of a heat-actuated device or other approved means of effecting closure.

     (20)  Flammable.  As applied to solids, materials which will ignite and continue to burn when brought in contact for a short time with an open flame such as a match flame or when in contact with glowing materials. As applied to liquids, any liquid having a flash point less than 200 degrees Fahrenheit.

     (21)  Foyer.  The area open to the public between the lobby and the auditorium.

     (22)  Gallery.  Any seating tier above the balcony.

     (23)  Grade.  The ground surface, however finished, adjacent to an exterior doorway.

     (24)  Headroom.  Clear space measured vertically from walking surfaces.

     (25)  Hallway.  An enclosed corridor leading to a required exit.

     (26)  Hereafter.  On or after July 1, 1957.

     (27)  Horizontal exit.  A way of egress from one separate floor area to another on substantially the same level, through or around separating fire walls, exterior walls or party walls by means of protected doorways or exterior balconies or bridges.

     (28)  Incombustible material.  Any material which will not ignite nor actively support combustion during an exposure of not less than five minutes to a temperature of 1200 degrees Fahrenheit.

     (29)  Kitchen or service pantry.  An area or space in which cooking equipment, other than hot plates, coffee urns, toasters and similar equipment is used.

     (30)  Lobby.  An enclosed area or space directly accessible from the main entrance or main entrance vestibule.

     (31)  Main floor.  That which is directly entered upon through the main or principal entrance to the place of assembly.

     (32)  Motion picture house.  A theatre used primarily for the showing of motion pictures.

     (33)  New.  Constructed or converted to public assembly use on or after July 1, 1957.

     (34) Passageway.  An enclosed corridor connecting a required exit with a street or with an open area affording unobstructed passage to a street, but shall not include a lobby.

     (35)  Proscenium wall.  The wall separating the auditorium from the stage and including the stage opening.

     (36)  Public assembly building.  A building containing a place of public assembly.

     (37)  Public way.  A street, a road or an open space not less than 15 feet wide, leading to a street or road.

     (38)  Shaft.  Includes all stairway, elevator and dumbwaiter shafts, vent and light shafts, pipe and duct shafts, hoistways and all other vertical openings leading from one floor to another.

     (39)  Stadium-type.  A seating arrangement where the rows of seats are on steps extending upward from the floor of the auditorium with no other tier beneath them.

     (40)  Stage.  A permanent raised platform designed and used for presenting theatrical or operatic performances involving changes of scenery in the course of a performance.

     (41)  Street.  A street, road or public highway.

     (42)  Temporary.  (As applied to structures.) A structure which is not intended for over 21 consecutive days use in any one location.

     (43)  Theatre.  A building or part of a building used for public presentation of theatrical, operatic, motion picture or similar performances or exhibitions.

     (44)  Tier.  The main floor, mezzanine, loge, balcony, gallery or other similar level in the auditorium on which seats are provided for the audience.

     (45)  Wood frame building.  A building in which the structural parts and materials are principally of wood, or other combustible materials, or are dependent upon a wood frame for support, including construction having an incombustible veneer or an incombustible covering.

§ 36-1.5 Approved devices and materials.

     No provision of this Part shall limit the power of the board to approve, disapprove or revoke approval of devices or materials. An approved device or material of a class or designation required by this Part shall constitute a device or material in compliance with this Part, any provision of this or any other Part of the Industrial Code notwithstanding.

§ 36-1.6 Severability.

     If any provision of this Part or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, such invalidity shall not affect other provisions or applications of this Part which can be given effect without the invalid provisions or application and to this end the provisions of this Part are declared to be severable.

SUBPART 36-2

REQUIREMENTS OF GENERAL APPLICATION

Sec.
36-2.1     Application
36-2.2     Capacity
36-2.3     Required exits
36-2.4     Construction
36-2.5     Mixed occupancy
36-2.6     Electric lighting, wiring and equipment
36-2.7     Heating and mechanical ventilation
36-2.8     Sanitation
36-2.9     Fire hazards
36-2.10   Motion picture film -- use, handling and storage

§ 36-2.1 [Application.]

     The provisions of Subpart 36-2 apply to all structures containing or constituting places of public assembly. They are applicable to existing and new structures unless otherwise herein specifically stated. Certain occupancies are subject to the special requirements of Subpart 36-3.

§ 36-2.2 Capacity.

     (a)   Capacity as determined by this section shall be used as the basis for computing the required width and number of exitways.

     (b)   The capacity of every place of public assembly shall be the sum of all component capacities listed below which are pertinent. Where capacity is determined on the basis of area, the area to be considered shall include those spaces generally used or occupied by the public for public assembly purposes and shall not include such spaces as toilets, utility or locker rooms.

     (1)  Seats secured or designed to be secured, to the floor -- total of all.

     (2)  Benches -- one person to each 18 inches of length unless arms are used between seats, in which case paragraph (1) shall apply.

     (3)  Portable seats -- one person to each six square feet of floor area, aisles included.

     (4)  Standing room -- one person to each three square feet of floor area permitted to be occupied as such.

     (5)  Waiting space -- one person to each three square feet of floor area other than standing room, which is designated to be occupied by persons waiting for seats to become available.

     (6)  Bowling alleys -- each bowling alley, including 15 feet of runway, shall be assumed to have an occupancy of five persons. Seats provided for the exclusive use of bowlers shall not be considered in determining capacity.

     (7)  Billiard rooms -- one person to each 50 square feet of the area so occupied.

     (8)  Skating rinks -- one person to each 25 square feet of the area occupied by skaters, plus standing room and seating capacity as set forth above.

     (9)  Indoor amphitheatres -- the maximum occupancy permitted upon the floor of the arena at any time, plus standing room and seating capacity outside of the arena as set forth above.

     (10)  Any tier, floor or portion of a place of public assembly used as a dining room, lounge, smoking room, promenade, dance floor or for any similar purpose not specifically classified herein -- one person for each 10 square feet of floor area so used.

     (11)  When a place of public assembly is intended for multiple use the classification yielding the greatest calculated occupancy shall be used to determine the capacity. When conditions of a particular use contemplate only partial occupancy of a place of public assembly the enforcing authority may fix a limited capacity for the particular type of occupancy intended and shall state this limit on the certificate of compliance.

§ 36-2.3 Required exits.

     (a)   Number.  (1)  For building, tier or floor.  Each building containing a place of public assembly and each tier or floor of same shall be provided with required exits as follows:


Capacity of tier, floor,

or building

                Minimum number of

                 exits

500 persons or less

                 2

501 to 1000 persons

                 3

1001 or more persons

                 4


     (2)  For rooms.  Every room or group of connected rooms having an aggregate floor area of 1,000 square feet or more shall be provided with one or more exits opening onto an exitway. If the area of the room or group of connected rooms exceeds 1,500 square feet, or its occupancy exceeds 75 persons at least two exits shall be provided.

     (3)  Small basements.   Basement or cellar floors with 500 square feet or less area require only one exit.

     (b)   Location  (1)  Remoteness.  The required exits from any room, tier, or floor shall be remote from and independent of each other.

     (2)  Distance of travel.  The distance of travel from any point on a tier or floor to the nearest required exit therefrom shall not exceed 100 feet except that in existing places such distance shall not exceed 125 feet. This distance shall be measured along normally travelled routes.

     (3)  Hazardous travel.  No required exitway hereafter constructed shall lead through a kitchen, service pantry, boiler room or other space of similar hazard.

     (c)   Type.  Exits shall consist of grade exit doorways, interior or exterior stairways or ramps, or horizontal exits, except as may be otherwise specified herein.

     (d)   Aggregate widths of exitways.  (1)  Doorways and stairways.  The necessary aggregate widths of doorways and stairways shall be determined by the capacity of the places, floors or tiers they serve on the basis of 12 inches of width for each 50 persons or fraction thereof.

     (2)  Exitways serving several places.  Where one or more required exitways serve more than one tier or place of public assembly, the aggregate width of such exitways shall be determined as in the preceding paragraph for the combined capacities of the tiers or places served by such exitways.

     (3)  Two or more exitways.  Where more than one exitway is required, the total necessary aggregate width shall be apportioned approximately equally among them.

     (4)  Stairs ending on main floor.  Where required interior stairways from any tier or floor terminate on the main floor, the aggregate width of exitways from the main floor shall be increased so as to provide for not less than 100 percent of the persons served by such stairways.

     (5)  Stairs serving two or more floors.  The aggregate required width of stairways serving two or more successive floors or tiers shall be determined by adding 50 percent of the lesser required width to 100 percent of the greater required width of the two most distant tiers and thereafter 50 percent of each successive tier.

     (e)   Individual widths of exitways.  (1)  Doorways.  No required exit doorway shall be less than 36 inches in width unless otherwise specifically permitted.


Exception:

Existing exit door openings may have widths of
not less than 30 inches.


     (2)  Stairways.  No required interior or exterior stairway shall be less than 42 inches nor more than 96 inches in width unless otherwise specifically permitted by this Part.


Exception:

Existing stairways may have widths of not less than
36 inches, if constructed before July 1, 1925, they
may have widths of not less than 30 inches. They may
also exceed 90 inches in width.


     (3)  Sidewalk stairs.  Sidewalk stairs and any doorways leading to such stairs shall be not less than 30 inches wide.

     (4)  Passageways and hallways.  All passageways and hallways shall have clear widths at least equal to that required for the exits they serve at the beginning but in no case less than 44 inches. If serving more than the beginning exits their widths shall be increased sufficiently to serve at least two thirds of the aggregate number of persons served by the tributary exits. No reduction in width of passageway or hallway in the direction of exit travel is permitted.


Exception:

Existing passageways and hallways may have minimum
widths of 36 inches.


     (5)  Width -- how measured.  The width of stairways shall be taken as the length of the tread between stringers. The width of doorways shall be taken as the nominal width of the door leaves.

     (6)  Doors in series.  Doors in series may be used in exitways provided no single door between mullions is less than 22 inches. Mullions between doorways shall not exceed 15 inches and no credit for required exit width shall be allowed for fractional parts of 12 inches in any doorway. A doorway shall be considered the space occupied by single or double doors between mullions or, for series doors without mullions, the space between doors when they are opened 90 degrees.

     (7)  Doorway serving a stairway.  The width of a doorway serving a required stairway shall be at least five-sixths of the stairway width required for the tiers served.

     (8)  Courts.  A court hereafter used as a part of an exitway shall have a clear width equal to that required for the exits it serves at the beginning but in all cases shall have a clear and unobstructed width of at least six feet. If serving more than the beginning exits the width shall be increased sufficiently to serve at least two-thirds of the aggregate number of persons served by the tributary exits.

     (9)  Balconies and bridges.  The width of any balcony or bridge used in connection with a horizontal exit shall be not less than the doorway serving it and in any case not less than 44 inches.

     (10)  Aisles.  The minimum width of aisles leading to an exit shall be 36 inches except as may be otherwise provided in sections 36-3.2 and 36-3.3 herein as to theatres.

     (f)   Exit courts.  (1)  Extent and egress.  Exit courts shall extend sufficiently to take in such side and rear exits from the main floor as do not open onto a street or other open area, and they shall themselves lead directly to a street or open area leading to a street.

     (2)  Difference in levels.  Difference in levels which exist within a court shall be overcome by ramps. One flight of stairs shall be used if a ramp steeper than one in eight is required.

     (3)  Obstructions.  Courts shall be kept reasonably free from snow and ice at all times during occupancy of the place of public assembly, and shall be sanded as may be necessary to prevent slippery conditions. They shall not be used for storage or be obstructed in any manner.

     (g)   Terminals.  (1)  Final egress to street.  All exitways shall lead directly to a street or open area, passage or court leading to a street.

     (2)  Outside landings for grade exit doors.  Every grade exit door shall have an approximately level floor, area or landing on the outside thereof, not less in depth than the swing of the door and extending at least 12 inches beyond each door jamb unless confined by walls. Such landings shall be not more than six inches below the level of the door sill.

     (h)   Doors in exitways.  (1)  Size and construction.


   (i)  The nominal width of single doors hereafter installed shall be not less than 36 nor more than 44 inches except new doors fitted to existing doorways.

   (ii)  The nominal width of each leaf of double doors or doors in series shall be not less than 22 nor more than 38 inches.

   (iii)  The nominal height of doors hereafter installed shall be at least six feet eight inches except new doors fitted to existing doorways.


     (2)  Swing of doors.


   (i)  Every required exit door and every door serving a means of exit, shall swing in the direction of egress except doors from rooms having a capacity of less than 50 persons.

   (ii)  Every door opening on an exit court, passageway or stairway shall be so arranged by vestibuling or otherwise that when partially or completely opened, it does not encroach upon the required width of such court, passageway or stairway.

   (iii)  Main entrance doors shall open outwardly or may be double acting, but all exit doors from passageways shall swing only in the direction of exit travel. Screen, vestibule and storm doors shall comply with the requirements of this subdivision.


     (3)  Fastenings of doors.


   (i)  During the period of occupancy, no exit door from a place of public assembly shall be locked, bolted or otherwise fastened so that the door cannot be opened from the inside by pressure on the door or on an approved panic release device.

   (ii)  Draw or flush bolts may be used on the outer doors of the main public entrance provided that when hereafter installed they are of an approved type which can only be operated by a special key designed to prevent unauthorized, malicious or accidental locking and all such bolts shall be unlocked to allow the opening of the doors by pressure on the inside during occupancy of the place of public assembly.


     (4)  Revolving doors.


   (i)  Revolving doors may be installed in a place of public assembly only if one or more swinging doors are maintained in the same general exit opening, and there is at least one other required means of exit from the same floor. No revolving door constitutes a required means of exit or contributes to the required aggregate width of exits.

   (ii)  Revolving doors shall be of an approved type and so constructed with safety releases that simultaneous outward pressure exerted by persons of ordinary strength on both sides of the door pivot will cause the wings to fold back on themselves in the direction of exit travel and provide a clear passage at least 22 inches wide on each side.


     (i)   Interior stairways -- construction and enclosure.  (1)  General construction.  Every required interior stairway shall be built of incombustible materials throughout, except for handrails. The clear headroom shall be at least seven feet measured vertically from the floor, landing or any tread nosing, to any projection below the general ceiling level. Every tread, landing or platform of slate, marble, stone or composition shall be supported for its entire area.


Exception:

Existing required interior stairways are not required
to be of incombustible materials throughout.


     (2)  Stairway enclosure.  Interior stairways serving as required exits shall be enclosed in accordance with the requirements for shafts set forth in part 7 of the Industrial Code unless such enclosure is waived herein for special cases.

     (3)  Ventilation of stairway enclosures.  Every enclosed stairway shall be provided with ventilation according to the ventilation requirements for shafts and stairways set forth in Part 7 of the Industrial Code.

     (4)  Treads and risers.  


   (i)  The treads and risers of interior stairways hereafter constructed shall be so proportioned that the product in inches of the tread, exclusive of the nosing, and the riser, shall be between 70 and 77 ½; but the height of the riser shall not be more than seven and three-quarters inches and the width of the tread, exclusive of the nosing shall not be less than 10 inches.

   (ii)  The treads shall be maintained so as to prevent slipping and both treads and risers shall be without perforations.

   (iii)  Between any two landings, the treads shall be of uniform width and the risers of uniform height.

   (iv)  No flight of less than three risers shall be used except to overcome differences in floor level elsewhere than in exitways.

   (v)  Winders are not permitted and spiral stairs do not constitute required exit stairs.


     (5)  Landings.  


   (i)  The vertical distance between landings of required interior stairways hereafter constructed shall not exceed 12 feet 6 inches. The length and width of terminal and intermediate landings shall be at least equal to the width of the stairway in which they occur except that intermediate landings on straight runs need not have a length exceeding 44 inches measured in the direction of the run.

   (ii)  The walls at the outer corners of landings hereafter constructed where there is a change in the direction of exit travel, shall be curved on a radius of at least two feet or have a 45 degree splay at least 20 inches wide.


     (6)  Handrails.  


   (i)  Every required interior stairway shall have walls or well-secured balustrades or guards on both sides. A handrail shall be provided on one side of every stair 48 inches or less in width and on both sides of every stair over 48 inches in width. Every stairway 96 inches or more in width shall be provided with a continuous intermediate central handrail.

   (ii)  Handrails shall extend for the full run of the stair and shall not be less than 30 inches nor more than 36 inches high from the tread to the top of the rail measured in line with the riser. Horizontal handrails shall be not less than 36 inches high.

   (iii)  Handrails shall have a finger clearance of not less than one inch and may project into the required width not more than three and one-half inches. The ends of handrails shall be turned back against walls or newels and finished without projections.


     (7)  Sidewalk stairs.  


   (i)  Sidewalk stairs need not be enclosed. They shall be constructed with treads not less than six inches wide and risers not more than 12 inches high and a pitch not exceeding 60 degrees. Safety rails shall be provided on both sides of such stairs.

   (ii)  Every sidewalk stair shall terminate on a street or an open area leading to a street. Sidewalk doors may be installed over such stairs provided that such doors are easily openable from the inside and are not obstructed on the outside. If no such doors are installed, a standard railing shall be provided at the top.


     (8)  Balcony and mezzanine stairs other than in theatres.   Stairways from mezzanines and balconies which lead to the floor below, independently of stairways from a floor or floors above, may be unenclosed. The area of mezzanines which exit independently to the floor below shall constitute part of the area of the floor below.

     (9)  Cellar or basement stairs -- general.  Except as hereinafter provided cellar or basement exit stairs shall be enclosed interior stairways, or unenclosed exterior stairways extending to grade. Where the basement or cellar is not more than 12 feet below grade or where the building is of fireproof construction, stairways may be unenclosed below the level of the floor above, provided that above such level the exitways are enclosed and lead directly to a street or to a passageway or open area affording unobstructed passage to a street.

     (10)  Cellar or basement stairs -- from areas not regularly occupied.  Cellars or basements not open to the public and used for storage or mechanical equipment only, or in which no one is regularly employed are excepted from the requirements of paragraph (9) above as follows:


   (i)  If the cellar or basement does not exceed 1,500 square feet in area a sidewalk stair shall suffice as one of its two required exits.

   (ii)  If the cellar or basement does not exceed 500 square feet in area the single exit permitted by paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of this section may be a sidewalk stair.


     (j)   Exterior stairways from above grade.  (1)  Limitations.  


   (i)  No exterior stairway from above grade constitutes a required means of exit if it is more than 35 feet high from its termination at the ground to its top landing or tread.


Exception:

Existing exterior stairways and all fly gallery and
gridiron exits from theatres may be over 35 feet
high if otherwise in compliance with the provisions
of this section.


   (ii)  Not more than 50 percent of the required exit capacity for the floor or floors served may be provided by exterior stairways.


     (2)  Access.  Access to such exterior stairways shall be by doors with beveled sills not more than one inch above the floor level, opening outwardly upon a landing which is not more than eight inches below the sill. Such door shall swing in the direction of exit travel and when completely open shall not reduce the passage space on any landing to less than the required width of the stairway.

     (3)  Construction.  


   (i)  Exterior stairways shall be constructed of incombustible material except in the case of an existing stairway leading from the second story of a wood frame building or other case herein specifically excepted.

   (ii)  Stairs and landings shall be so constructed and maintained as to sustain safely a live load of at least 90 pounds per square foot.

   (iii)  Landings not less in width than the stairs shall be provided at each story served and at such other points as are necessary to limit the vertical distance between landings to not over 12 feet 6 inches. Such landings shall be not less than 44 inches in the direction of exit travel. No run of stairs shall consist of less than three risers except where the distance from a required landing to grade is not sufficient to permit three risers.

   (iv)  Treads shall not be less than nine inches wide exclusive of nosing and the height of the rise shall not be more than eight inches. No winders or spiral stairs shall be permitted. No opening whose lesser dimensions exceeds one-half inch shall be permitted in treads or landing floors.

   (v)  Counter-balanced flights are prohibited on exterior stairways hereafter erected, but existing counter-balanced flights may be retained and may be replaced as herein provided. See paragraph (2) of subdivision (m) of this section.


     (4)  Enclosures and railings.  


   (i)  Landings and stairs shall be provided with railings at least 48 inches high on all open sides except that railings not less than 42 inches high are permitted on existing stairways.

   (ii)  Such railings shall be of solid, balustraded, grill or screen construction substantially anchored and able to withstand a lateral thrust of at least 50 pounds per lineal foot. No openings whose lesser dimension exceeds five and one-half inches are permitted. Handrails shall be provided in accordance with paragraph (6) of subdivision (i) of this section.


     (k)   Exterior stairways from below grade.  (1)  Unenclosed exterior stairways extending up to grade constitute required means of exit where the floor level served by such stairways is not more than 12 feet below grade.

     (2)  Such stairways shall be constructed of incombustible materials throughout. They shall otherwise conform to the applicable provisions of the above rules for exterior stairways from above grade.

     (3)  Every such stairway shall lead directly to a street or to an open area affording an unobstructed passage to a street.

     (l)   Protection of exterior stairways.  All wall openings below the level of the top landing which are within 10 feet of, or less than 30 feet below the course of the stairway, shall be provided with self-closing fire doors or fire windows having a fire-resistance rating of at least three-quarters of an hour.

     (m)   Maintenance and replacement of exterior stairways.  (1)  Maintenance.  All metal portions of exterior stairways shall be properly painted before and after erection and be scraped and painted as often as necessary to protect them from corrosion. They shall be kept free of snow and ice or obstructions of any kind.

     (2)  Replacement.  When existing counter-balanced flights are replaced, they shall conform to the following requirements:


   (i)   They shall hinge on pivots with bronze bushings and be weighted without the use of cable so as to swing to the ground when unlatched.

   (ii)  A short flight of fixed stairs of at least three treads shall be provided between the lowest balcony level and the counter-balanced portion of the stairs.

   (iii)  The lock or releasing rod shall have a fork at the lower end fitting over and under the weighted end of the counter-balanced stairs and shall extend up and across the head of the short flight of fixed stairs in the shape of an out-swinging bar or gate, the opening of which shall unlatch the counter-balanced flight.


     (n)   Horizontal exits.  (1)  General.  


   (i)  On the refuge side of horizontal exits there shall be one or more means of exit conforming to the provisions of this Part and having a capacity at least equal to that of the horizontal exit from the place of assembly.

   (ii)  The available space on the refuge side of any horizontal exit shall be sufficient to contain all the occupants of the tier or floor which it serves on the basis of three and one half square feet per person.

   (iii)  The two floor areas connected by a horizontal exit shall be either spaces occupied by the same tenant or public spaces other than stair enclosures.


     (2)  Openings.  Fire wall openings serving a horizontal exit shall be protected by two self-closing fire doors which swing in the direction of travel or by one such door and an automatic fire door. Such doors shall be kept unlocked and unobstructed. Their sills shall be substantially level with the floor.

     (3)  Balconies and bridges.  Every balcony and bridge serving a horizontal exit shall conform to the following requirements:


   (i)  It shall be built of incombustible material throughout.

   (ii) It shall have a solid floor.

   (iii) Unless all openings in building walls, within 30 feet below it or 10 feet horizontally from it, are provided with self-closing fire doors or fire windows, it shall be completely enclosed. Such enclosure shall consist of side walls which together with the floor construction shall have a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour.

   (iv) If unenclosed, it shall be provided on all open sides with railings at least 48 inches high which conform to the provisions for the railings of exterior stairways and landings as set forth in paragraph (4) of subdivision (j) of this section.

   (v)  The floor shall be able to sustain safely a load of 90 pounds per square foot. It shall be located not more than eight inches below the door sills of openings onto it and shall not have a gradient of more than one in eight.


     (o)   Ramps.  (1)  Ramps may be used in place of stairways provided that such ramps comply with the requirements for stairways insofar as applicable. Intermediate handrails are not required.

     (2)  The slope of ramps shall not exceed one in eight except as otherwise specifically provided herein. Level platforms or landings shall be provided at points of access and change of direction.

     (3)  Ramps shall be surfaced with acceptable non-slip material.

     (p)   Enclosure of passageways and hallways.  (1)  Passageways shall be enclosed in accordance with the requirements for the enclosure of exit stairways in the same building.

     (2)  Hallways serving as part of an exitway shall be enclosed with construction having a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour.

     (q)   Aisles.  (1)  Aisles providing convenient and unobstructed passage to each exit shall be provided on every floor or tier.

     (2)  No aisle shall be diminished in width towards an exit to less than its minimum required width.

     (r)   Exit signs and exit directional signs.  (1)  Signs installed before July 1, 1967.   No provision of this Part (rule) as amended effective July 1, 1967 requires or is intended to require alteration or replacement of any exit sign, exit directional sign or wiring for such signs installed prior to July 1, 1967 which complies with the provisions of this Part (rule) in effect at the time of its installation, or with a subsisting variation granted by the board.

     (2)  Signs installed on or after July 1, 1967.   Every exit sign and exit directional sign installed on or after July 1, 1967 shall comply with the following provisions.


   (i)  Exit signs.


   (a)  Approval required.   Any exit sign installed after November 1, 1967 shall be approved.

   (b)  Where required.   Exit signs, visible from the normal path of approach to every required exit shall be provided in all places of public assembly to which this Part (rule) applies.

   (c)  Location of sign.   An exit sign shall be provided for each required exit doorway or equivalent opening forming part of an exit and shall be installed with the lower edge of the sign at a point not more than eight feet above the floor level at the opening and on the vertical center line of the opening or group of openings.



Exception:

Only one exit sign shall be required for a group or
series of not more than four openings where the
openings adjoin each other or are spaced not more than
one foot apart. Where there are more than four openings
in a group or series, two exit signs shall be installed
at points which are located at a distance from each
end equal to one-fourth of' the total width of the
doorways.



   (d)  Mounting.   Installation for exit signs shall be parallel to the wall surface over the opening and either mounted directly on the wall or suspended not more than two feet from the wall; except that where the path of travel leading to a required exit is such that the exit sign is not readily discernible due to the angle of approach, the sign shall be mounted perpendicular to the wall surface.

   (e)  Legend requirements.   Exit signs shall be inscribed with the word EXIT in plainly legible block letters. The sign letters shall be conspicuous, readily discernible, and not less than four and one-half inches high with letter strokes not less than one-half inch wide. Exits serving an unpartitioned space with an area of 20,000 square feet or more shall be designated by exit signs with letters not less than six inches high and having letter strokes not less than three-quarters of an inch wide.

   (f)  Legend and background colors.   Exit sign wording shall consist of translucent red letters on a translucent or opaque background of contrasting color, translucent white letters on a translucent red background, or of other colors acceptable as part of an approved sign.

   (g)  Visibility.   The space within a distance of 25 feet from which any exit sign may be normally approached and a distance of six feet each side of such sign shall be maintained free from equipment, furnishings, decorations or objects, including brightly illuminated signs (for other than exit purposes), illuminated displays, or other illuminated devices or things which would prevent or impair clear visibility of such exit sign.

   (h)  Illumination.   Every exit sign shall be illuminated internally by electrical means from a reliable power source or be illuminated by other means acceptable as part of an approved sign and shall be kept illuminated continuously when the building is occupied. When illuminated by electrical means, signs shall be supplied by an independent circuit or circuits reserved and used exclusively for the supply of power to such signs. Each sign shall be directly connected to the circuit without any switches, fuses, plugs or similar devices. The circuit shall be connected with proper overcurrent protection and switches to the circuit box distributing power from the generator or public utility to the building or floor or area of the building. Required illumination of an exit sign shall be of such intensity that the sign so illuminated will be clearly discernible from any part of the floor area serviced thereby. Where incandescent, fluorescent or equivalent lighting is used to illuminate an exit sign, there shall be in each sign at least two separate light bulbs or equivalent light sources wired in parallel so that the failure of one light source will not affect any other.


   (ii)  Exit directional signs.


   (a)  Where required.   Exit directional signs shall be provided and mounted at strategic locations over doorways and in hallways, passageways, corridors and along other paths of travel which lead to an exit but from which the exit sign is not visible or readily discernible. In no case shall the distance between such signs exceed 100 feet and a sign shall be installed at every major change in direction of the path of travel to an exit.

   (b)  Construction and legend.   Exit directional signs shall be constructed of durable wood, metal, plastic or such other material as may be acceptable to the commissioner inscribed with the words TO EXIT or the word EXIT with a suitable pointer or arrow indicating the direction of exit; or such required legend shall be inscribed directly on a wall or other vertical surface. The letters and symbols shall be red with a white back- ground or white with a red background, not less than one-half inch wide. Exit directional signs are not required to be illuminated by other than the normal lighting in the building.

   (c)  Mounting.   Height of mounting shall be such that the sign is readily visible to a person approaching it. Where a directional sign indicates a major change in direction of the path of travel to an exit, such sign shall be mounted approximately perpendicular to the approaching path of travel and be inscribed with the word EXIT with a suitable pointer or arrow indicating the direction of exit. Where the path of travel does not change direction, the exit directional sign shall be mounted over the approximate center line of the doorway, passageway, hallway or stairway approximately perpendicular to the path of travel and be inscribed with the words TO EXIT.



Historical Note:  Sec. amd., filed June 9, 1967 to be eff. July 1, 1967. Substituted new subds. (g) and (r).

§ 36-2.4 Construction.

     (a)   Limitations on various types of construction.   (1)  The types of construction required for places of public assembly hereafter constructed other than open air structures are as set forth in the following table:


Fireproof:

1.  Theatres over 600 capacity.
2.  Theatres having more than one tier.
3.  Assembly halls having a capacity of 1,000 or more.

Fire-resisting:

1.  Theatres having only one tier and a capacity of 600 or
less.
2.  Assembly halls having a capacity of less than 1,000
and falling within one of the following categories:
       a.  Occupying more than one story.
       b.  Located more than one story above grade.
       c.  Located below grade.
3.  Assembly halls of one story having a capacity of over

600 and less than 1,000.

Non-fire-resisting:     

1.  One story assembly halls not required to be fire-
resisting and having a capacity of 600 or less.


     (2)  No place of public assembly is permitted more than 12 feet below grade or 25 feet above grade or above the second floor, in a wood frame building.

     (b)   Ceiling heights.   Ceiling heights in any room or space hereafter constructed and open to the public, shall be at least nine feet, except in passageways, hallways, toilet rooms and spaces above or below a balcony which shall have heights of at least seven feet six inches.

     (c)   Shafts.   Shafts hereafter constructed shall be enclosed and ventilated pursuant to the requirements for shafts as given in Part 7 of the Industrial Code.

     (d)   Combustible materials in fireproof buildings.   In addition to the combustible materials allowed in the construction of fireproof buildings by Industrial Code Part 7, places of public assembly of fireproof construction may have wood wainscoting not over six feet in height provided the space behind the wainscoting is fire-stopped not to exceed 10 feet in any direction.

§ 36-2.5 Mixed occupancy.

     (a)   General.   Where a portion of a structure containing a place of public assembly is not used or occupied for public assembly or purposes incidental thereto, such portion shall not be subject to the exit or construction requirements of this Part.

     (b)   Limitations on mixed occupancy.   (1)  No place of public assembly shall be permitted in a building any part of which is used for a hazardous occupancy. The following list illustrates without limiting the types of occupancies which will be considered hazardous in the meaning of this subdivision:


(i)  places for the handling and storage of explosives;

(ii)  places where paints are handled in bulk;

(iii)  automobile filling stations, service or repair shops;

(iv)  dry cleaning plants using flammable liquids.


     (2)  Where a place of public assembly is hereafter housed in the same building with one or more other occupancies which are not prohibited by paragraph (1) of this subdivision, the place of public assembly shall be separated from such other occupancies by walls and floors which have a fire-resistance rating of at least two hours in multi-story buildings and by fire-resisting construction in buildings not over one story.

     (3)  Rooms or areas used for, and in connection with public assembly purposes in the same building and under the same management as the assembly hall, may be held to be separate occupancies for the purpose of this subdivision.

     (c)   Connections to nonhazardous separate occupancies.   A single opening not exceeding 80 square feet in area, may be permitted from each adjoining non-hazardous occupancy. Such opening shall be to a lobby which opens directly to a street and it shall be provided with a fire door having a rating of at least three-quarters of an hour. Such door may have a wired glass panel not exceeding 720 square inches in area and may be of the automatic type closed by a heat-actuated device.

§ 36-2.6 Electric lighting, wiring and equipment.

     (a)   General.   Except as may be otherwise specifically set forth in this Part, the following provisions of this section shall apply to all places of public assembly.

     (b)   Electric lighting required.   No other source of artificial illumination of places of assembly shall be permitted except electricity.

     (c)   Electrical wiring and equipment.   All electrical wiring and equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with nationally and locally accepted standards.

     (d)   Lighting of theatres -- including motion picture and summer theatres.   (1)  Lighting of exitways.   During public occupancy, all exitways shall be distinctly illuminated. Illumination providing a light intensity of 0.5 foot-candle or more at floor levels shall be deemed in compliance herewith.

     (2)  Lighting of aisles.   During public occupancy, all aisles shall be so illuminated that the travelled portions thereof shall be visible to the occupants using them. Such illumination shall be independent of light reflected from any picture screen. Such illumination providing a light intensity of 0.1 foot-candle or more at floor level shall be deemed in compliance herewith.

     (3)  Lighting of auditoriums.   During public occupancy, all auditoriums shall be so illuminated that the seats and the occupants thereof shall be visible. Such illumination providing a light intensity of 0.1 foot-candle or more at floor level on the main floor and 0.2 foot-candle at floor level in the balcony and galleries shall be deemed in compliance herewith.

     (4)  Control.   The lighting of exitways, aisles and auditoriums, including exit signs, shall be controlled from locations inaccessible to unauthorized persons. Where normal control is in the projection room, emergency control shall be provided elsewhere.

     (e)   Lighting of all places of public assembly not covered by subdivision (d) hereof.   During public occupancy, all exitways and other occupied portions of such places shall be distinctly illuminated by natural or artificial means. Illumination providing a light intensity of 0.5 foot-candle or more at floor or ground levels shall be deemed in compliance herewith.

     (f)   Emergency lighting.   In every place of public assembly having a capacity of over 300 persons and customarily using artificial lighting during public occupancy, there shall be installed and maintained in addition to the principal lighting system, an independent substitute lighting system powered by a source of electricity other than that of the principal system and capable of providing through the circuits and fixtures of the principal system or otherwise a distinct illumination for a period of 30 minutes of all exitways and aisles. Such substitute system shall be arranged so as to operate automatically upon failure of electric current in the principal system. A light intensity of 0.5 foot-candle at floor or ground levels shall be deemed distinct illumination within the meaning and intent of this subdivision.

Historical Note Subd. (g) repealed, filed June 9, 1967 to be eff. July l, 1967. **

§ 36-2.7 Heating and mechanical ventilation.

     (a)   Central heating.   (1)  Central heating furnaces in buildings containing places of public assembly shall be located elsewhere than in an area where persons are congregated. Each such furnace shall be supported by a floor having an incombustible surface and shall be so insulated or located as not to overheat adjacent woodwork or other combustible material. No combustible material shall be stored within five feet of such furnace. Chimneys and the connections between furnaces and chimneys shall be smoke and gas tight, firmly constructed and so located or insulated as not to overheat any adjacent combustible material. Ashes shall be kept in incombustible receptacles.

     (2)  In theatres and motion picture theatres of any capacity, or in other places of public assembly having over 600 capacity, hereafter constructed, the central heating furnace shall be enclosed by construction having a fire-resistance rating of at least two hours. The doors to such enclosures shall be self-closing fire doors having a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour. The finished floors and trim within such enclosure shall be of incombustible material.

     (3)  In places of public assembly other than theatres and motion picture theatres and having a capacity of 600 or less, hereafter constructed, the central heating furnace shall be enclosed by construction having a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour with self-closing fire doors of at least one hour fire-resistance rating.

     (4)  All openings which penetrate the enclosures of heating apparatus, such as warm air or ventilation ducts, shall be provided with incombustible self-closing dampers equipped with heat-actuated releasing devices of an approved type.

     (5)  No coil, radiator or pipe shall be placed so as to encroach upon the required width of any aisles, passageways or other means of exit.

     (6)  In places of public assembly hereafter constructed, no floor register shall be placed in aisles, passageways or other means of exit.

     (b)   Direct fired space heaters.   (1)   No direct-fired space heating unit shall be located in the auditorium of any theatre or within seven feet of the floor of any other area where persons are congregated.

     (2)  Suspended types of direct-fired heating units may be used without individual enclosures under the following conditions:


(i)  All portions of ceilings less than five feet above the unit for a radius of five feet around a point directly above it shall be of at least fire-resisting construction, or protected by a shield of incombustible material.

(ii)  Partitions less than 18 inches from the unit shall be similarly protected.

(iii)  Such protective shield shall be mounted with a one inch space between it and the ceiling or partition.

(iv)  If such a unit is mounted closer than six inches to a ceiling, a shield of incombustible material shall be interposed between the heating unit and the ceiling.


     (c)   Ventilation.   (1)  Every place of public assembly having an occupancy of 200 or more persons, wherein a central system of air conditioning or mechanical ventilation is operated, shall be provided with an emergency switch conveniently located and conspicuously labeled for shutting down the fan in case of fire.

     (2)  Every refrigerating system employing a fluid which is vaporized and liquified in its refrigerating cycle shall comply with the American Standards Safety Code for Mechanical Refrigeration current at the time of its installation.


Exception:

Hermetically sealed unit systems containing not more
than 10 pounds of refrigerant.


§ 36-2.8 Sanitation.

     (a)   General.   Those provisions of Industrial Code Part 9 relating to sanitation, covering drinking water, and the construction, heating, lighting, ventilation, and maintenance of toilet rooms and privies shall apply to all places of public assembly unless otherwise specifically provided.

     (b)   Number of fixtures.   The minimum number of toilet fixtures for the general public to be installed in indoor places of public assembly hereafter constructed, shall be in accordance with the following:

     (1)  In women's rooms.


(i)  One toilet bowl, minimum for the first 200 female occupants.

(ii)  One toilet bowl for each additional 200 female occupants or major fraction thereof.


     (2)  In men's rooms.


(i)  One toilet bowl and one urinal, minimum for the first 200 male occupants.

(ii)  One toilet bowl for each additional 300 male occupants or major fraction thereof.

(iii)  One urinal for each additional 200 male occupants or major fraction thereof.


     (3)  In both men's and women's rooms. One lavatory for each two of the total fixtures as calculated above. Same to be divided approximately equally between the women's and the men's rooms with a minimum of one in each such room.

     (c)   Employees.   The provisions of Industrial Code Part 9 regarding dressing rooms for female employees shall be observed where the number of such employees is five or more. The washing and toilet facilities provided for the general public shall be deemed adequate for the employees of a place of public assembly, except for the special requirements for projection booths and stage sections of theatres.

§ 36-2.9 Fire hazards.

     (a)   Decorations.   (1)   Combustible wall coverings may be used in places of public assembly only when pasted or cemented directly to the wall surfaces or if not so pasted or cemented, if such wall coverings are treated so that they will neither ignite nor actively support combustion.

     (2)  Decorative moldings and frames of combustible materials may be used only when their total area does not exceed 10 per cent of the area of the wall to which they are applied and the said moldings or frames do not exceed six inches in width nor one and one-half inches in thickness.

     (3)  No wall, ceiling, floor or seat covering or decoration having a pyroxylin or nitrocellulose base is permitted.

     (4)  No dry vegetation and no trees or greens containing pitch or resin are permitted. Flowers and decorative greens which do not contain pitch or resin are permitted only when freshly cut or living and not flammable. No flammable material whatever is permitted except as provided in paragraphs (1) and (2) above.


Exception:

One nonflameproofed resinous Christmas tree is
permitted at the discretion of the enforcing authority
in a place of public assembly whose exits are in full
compliance with this Part provided the following
conditions are observed:
     1.  Such tree shall be set up only between December
          23 and January 2.
     2.  It shall be fresh and not dry.
     3.  It shall be kept with its base immersed in water.
     4.  An approved two and one-half gallon soda ash
          or loaded stream fire extinguisher shall be kept
          in plain sight within 15 feet of such tree.
     5.  No lighted tree shall be set up at the bottom of
        a stairwell nor within 25 feet of an exit.
     6.  No flammable decorations and no lights other
          than electric lights shall be used on such tree.


     (b)   Storage in basements and cellars.   (1)  Combustible materials shall not be stored in basements or cellars of places of public assembly except under one of the following conditions:


(i)  Where the storage space is separated from the remainder of the place of public assembly by walls and floors having a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour with the openings therein provided with self-closing fire doors having a rating of at least one hour.

(ii)  Where the storage space is separated from the remainder of the place of public assembly by a tight enclosure with self-closing doors and in addition provided with automatic sprinkler protection.


     (2)  Combustible materials shall not be deemed to include fuel oil or coal stored for use in the heating of the building.

     (c)   Storage in or about stairways.   (1)  No storage of any kind under an enclosed stairway is permitted unless such storage space is enclosed by partitions and self-closing fire doors having fire-resistance ratings equal to the requirements for the stair enclosure, and the soffit of the stair and landing above such storage space is protected by construction having a fire-resistance rating equal to that required for the stair enclosure. There shall be no means of access to such storage space from the stair enclosure.

     (2)  Where a stairway is not required to be enclosed, a storage space beneath it is permitted only if such space is entirely enclosed, including the soffit of the stair, with construction having a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour with one hour self-closing fire doors at all openings.

     (3)  No flammable liquids, gases or materials shall under any circumstances be stored in or near a stairway or stair enclosure.

     (d)   Use of combustible or volatile fluids.   No apparatus in which any combustible or volatile fluid is used in the preparation of foods, refreshments or other materials is permitted in a lobby, foyer or auditorium of a place of public assembly. Combustible or volatile as used in this subdivision includes any fluid having a closed cup flash point below 400 degrees Fahrenheit.

     (e)   Kitchens and service pantries.   (1)  Where a kitchen or service pantry is used in connection with a place of public assembly, it shall be separated from the remainder of the place of public assembly by construction having a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour or covered on the kitchen side with a sheathing of three-sixteenths inch asbestos board or equivalent. Doors in such partitions shall be one hour self-closing fire doors or self-closing doors sheathed on the kitchen side with No. 26 gauge metal or equivalent. Such doors may have a vision panel of wired glass. Interior openings other than doors shall be provided with automatic dampers or shutters of incombustible material.

     (2)  The floor finish shall be of a fire retardant and nonabsorbent material such as cement, magnesite, rubber or asphalt tile, heavy linoleum, hard wood or other equivalent material.

     (3)  There shall be no air space in or between the floor finish and the floor beneath it.

     (4)  Ranges shall be provided with hoods and exhaust ducts which shall be of at least No. 26 gauge metal with tight joints. Range hoods shall be located not more than seven feet above the floor level and shall be of the width and breadth of the appliance served. A clearance of at least 18 inches shall be provided between range hoods and any combustible material. Connections from range hoods shall be to an independent chimney as required by subdivision (a) of section 36-2.7 or to a metal stack insulated from contact with any combustible material.

     (5)  Such hoods and ducts shall be thoroughly cleaned at least twice a year.

     (6)  An approved 10 pound carbon dioxide or two and one-half gallon foam fire extinguisher shall be provided and securely mounted on the wall in plain sight and readily accessible. Extinguishers shall be checked annually and recharged after use and shall be tagged to indicate when this was done and by whom.

     (f)   Assembly halls in fire houses.   The storage of fire apparatus is permitted in the same building with an assembly hall only if the apparatus room is separated from the assembly hall by construction having a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour. Doors opening into the apparatus room shall be at least one hour self-closing fire doors. Doors leading into the apparatus room shall not constitute required exits from the assembly hall.

     (g)   Projection screens.   Screens for projections of pictures shall be either made of incombustible materials or treated so as to neither ignite nor actively support combustion.

§ 36-2.10 Motion picture film -- use, handling and storage.

     (a)   General.   (1)  The projection of nitrocellulose film shall be only from within a booth which meets the requirements of this section as to construction, equipment and accessory rooms.

     (2)  Where cellulose acetate or safety film is used exclusively no projection booth is required but if such a booth is used only the following subdivisions of this section shall apply: paragraph (1) of subdivision (b); subdivision (c); paragraph (2) and (3) of subdivision (e); subdivisions (g), (h) and (i).

     (3)  Any booth wherein only cellulose acetate or safety film may be used in accordance with this Part, shall have posted or painted upon its exterior in letters at least two inches high, the following notice:

"No nitrocelluose film shall be used in this booth."

     (b)   Dimensions and general construction of booths.   (1)  Motion picture projection booths shall be at least 10 feet from front to rear and eight feet in width and height. The area shall be such as to provide not less than 30 inches clearance at the sides and rear of each projection machine between lamp housings and 30 inches at the rear of each spot or effect machine.

     (2)  The walls, ceilings, and floors of such booths shall have a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour. Only incombustible material shall be used in the booth construction and all joints therein shall be tight enough to prevent the discharge of smoke. Floor surfacing materials shall be cemented to the floor. Generator, film storage and rewinding rooms adjoining projection booths shall be subject to the same construction requirements as the booths.

     (c)   Exits from booths.   (1)  Motion picture projection booths shall have at least two exit doorways, located remote from each other, each at least 24 inches wide and 68 inches high and provided with self-closing fire doors opening out which have a fire-resistance rating of at least three quarters of an hour. Any locks on such doors shall be openable without a key from the inside. In no case shall any such doors be kept open during any exhibition. Both exit doors shall provide access to an open area or passage not more than eight inches below the door sill, or, where located at a higher level, to a platform providing access to stairways at least 30 inches wide which may be unenclosed, or to one such stairway and a ladder.

     (2)  Such platforms shall be at least two feet deep and extend from the hinge jamb of the door to at least two feet beyond the lock jamb of the door. Guard rails shall be provided at the edge of such platforms except where the stairway or ladder joins it.

     (3)  Such stairways shall be of incombustible material with risers not exceeding and treads not less than nine inches. Such ladders shall be of incombustible material with steps not less than 18 inches wide and shall be provided with handrails. The pitch of such ladders shall not exceed 60 degrees from the horizontal.

     (4)  Such open areas, passages, stairways, or stairway and ladder, shall either directly or through some exitway, provide access to a street.

     (5)  The required exits from the projection booth may be through the rewinding and generator rooms, respectively, provided that the exits from such rooms are fire doors as required above opening in the direction of exit travel.

     (d)   Operating openings.   (1)  One opening not exceeding 144 square inches shall be provided for each motion picture machine and one opening for observation, not exceeding 200 square inches, for each machine. Each opening shall be provided with a gravity shutter of not less than one-eighth inch sheet metal or three-eighths inch hard asbestos board with a lap of at least one inch all around and set in substantial metal guides. Each shutter shall be controlled by an approved heat-actuated device near the ceiling and there shall also be an approved heat-actuated device located over each upper projector magazine which will close all shutters. Means shall also be provided for the manual closing of all shutters from a point near each exit door.

     (2)  There may be not more than two additional openings neither of which shall exceed seven and one-half square feet in area, for stereopticon or spotlight machines. An additional opening for observation, not exceeding 200 square inches in area, may be provided for the dimmer bank, for the rewinding room and for the toilet room. All such openings shall be similarly protected by gravity shutters.

     (e)   Handling and storage of film.   (1)  Nitrocellulose film shall be kept and handled only in projection booths, rewinding rooms or in special storage rooms provided for such purposes. The total quantity so kept or handled shall not exceed 50,000 feet at any one time. The quantities of film kept or handled in the respective rooms shall not exceed the following:


(i)  In a projection booth not more than 25,000 feet. Film not in use shall be stored in a film cabinet or in I.C.C. containers.

(ii)  In a similarly fire-resistant adjoining enclosure separated from the projection booth with openings thereto provided with self-closing fire doors having a rating of at least three-quarters of an hour, not more than 25,000 feet shall be stored in a film cabinet or in I.C.C. containers.

(iii) In a storage room, which complies with the construction requirements for projection booths, not more than 25,000 feet shall be stored in a film cabinet or in I.C.C. containers.


     (2)  No flammable liquid or cement exceeding one pint in amount shall be kept in a projection booth, rewinding or other accessory adjoining room.

     (3)  Smoking is prohibited and a "NO SMOKING" sign shall be posted in a conspicuous place in each such room.

     (f)   Film cabinets.   (1)  Cabinets for the storage of nitrocellulose film shall be approved and have a capacity not in excess of 25,000 feet and shall be either of the sectional or vented type.

     (2)  The sectional type shall be so designed that each reel is stored in an individual compartment and can burn out without communicating fire to film in an adjoining compartment. The racks or drawers shall be so arranged that the material immediately adjacent to the partitions is kept at least one-half inch away from the partition on either side by spacers. Separating partitions, bottom, top, doors and sides shall be at least one and one half inches of asbestos board, enclosed between steel or iron sheets of not less than No. 22 U. S. gauge. All joints shall be welded. Compartment doors shall be so arranged as to close automatically when released and remain closed.

     (3)  The vented type shall be constructed of at least No. 18 U. S. gauge steel or iron sheets with double walls, bottom, top and doors having at least one and one-half inch space between walls. All joints shall be welded. Doors, when released, shall close and latch automatically at top, bottom and side. An automatic sprinkler head, protected by a wire mesh enclosure shall be provided and may be connected to the house supply by not less than one inch pipe, provided that the water pressure at that level be not less than 15 pounds per square inch. A vent flue to outer air having a minimum effective cross-sectional area of 18 square inches shall be provided.

     (4)  Vent flues shall be of construction equivalent to No. 18 U. S. gauge riveted metal and where installed inside the building shall be covered with one inch of incombustible heat insulating material and be no nearer than nine inches to any combustible material. Each vent which opens directly through an exterior wall shall be protected against the weather by a single thickness of glass one-sixteenth inch thick, painted a dark color, mounted in a sash arranged to open automatically in case of fire by the use of an approved heat-actuated device placed inside the cabinet or inside the vent immediately adjacent thereto. The total area of the glass shall be taken as the effective sectional area of the vent opening. A light wire screen not more than one eighth inch mesh shall also be placed over each vent, so arranged as not to interfere with the automatic operation of the sash.

     (5)  The outlets of such vent flues shall be above the roof of the building or be made to face on a clear exterior space of at least 25 feet. Where facing on a street or court the outlet shall be located at least eight feet above the grade and be provided with a metal deflector so that gas and flame will be deflected upward.

     (g)   Ventilation.   (1)  Ventilation shall be provided to exhaust not less than 15 cubic feet per minute for each arc lamp housing. In addition, at least eight air changes per hour shall be supplied in the projection room by a separate duct, located in the lower portion of a side wall. Every supply duct shall be provided with a gravity shutter, of not less than one-eighth inch sheet metal or three-eighths inch hard asbestos board, controlled by an approved heat-actuated device and also manually as required by subdivision (d) of this section for shutters of operating openings. If dampers are provided in exhaust ducts they shall be arranged to open completely and automatically in case of fire, except dampers on the lamps which may be manually operated. Exhaust ducts shall be of incombustible materials and so insulated that their temperature shall not exceed 160 degrees Fahrenheit when there is any likelihood that they may come into contact with persons or combustible materials. They shall discharge directly to the outer air or through an enclosure used for no other purposes and constructed of incombustible materials having a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour.

     (2)  The exhaust systems shall be controlled from the motion picture booth and have pilot lights to indicate their operation. The system serving the booth may be extended to include the rewinding and other adjoining accessory rooms, for which at least eight air changes per hour shall be provided, but shall not be connected in any way with systems serving other portions of the building.

     (3)  The projection room, rewinding and other accessory rooms shall be provided with separate air intakes of incombustible material having a cross-sectional area of at least one square inch for each c.f.m. to be exhausted. Fresh air intakes other than those direct to outer air shall be provided with fire shutters arranged to operate automatically as required by subdivision (d) of this section. If any window is provided in the booth, it shall be a fire window opening directly to the outside of the building, but no window may be considered as part of the mechanical ventilating system required herein.

     (h)   Equipment and maintenance.   (1)  All shelves, furniture and fixtures within any motion picture projection booth shall be entirely constructed of incombustible materials. Metal cans with self-closing covers shall be provided for holding waste materials and film clippings. Hot carbons shall be placed in an insulated metal container or a pail of sand. No combustible materials not essential to normal use of the booth shall be stored therein.

     (2)  All electrical equipment used in the booth shall be properly grounded.

     (i)   Toilet facilities.   A water closet and wash basin shall be provided with each projection booth where only one operator is on duty at any time. Such facilities shall be on the same floor as, and not more than 50 feet from the projection booth.

SUBPART 36-3

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PARTICULAR OCCUPANCIES

Sec.
36-3.1   Application
36-3.2   Theatres with stages -- new
36-3.3   Theatres with stages -- existing
36-3.4   Motion picture theatres -- new and existing
36-3.5   Summer theatres
36-3.6   Assembly halls and other indoor places of public assembly
36-3.7   Grandstands and bleachers
36-3.8   Open air places of public assembly

§ 36-3.1 [Application.]

     The provisions of Subpart 36-3 shall take precedence over the provisions for general application in Subpart 36-2 wherever they may differ from the latter. In the absence of anything to the contrary in Subpart 36-3, the pertinent provisions of Subpart 36-2 will apply.

§ 36-3.2Theatres with stages -- new.

     This section applies to theatres built on or after July 1, 1957.

     (a)   Exits.   (1)  Main floor entrance and exits.  


  (i)  The principal entrance shall constitute one required means of exit but, regardless of its width, shall not be credited as providing more than one half the required exit capacity of the main floor.

  (ii)  The total required capacity of exit doorways other than the principal entrance, shall be divided between them approximately equally.

  (iii)  Where two means of exit are required, one shall be located not more than 25 feet back of the front row of seats. Where three means of exit are required, two shall be similarly located on opposite sides. Where five or more means of exit are required, two shall be similarly located on opposite sides and the remaining pair or pairs shall be located on opposite sides so as to divide the distance between the exit nearest the front row and the rear wall of the auditorium approximately equally.

  (iv)  Where any main floor exit doorway other than the doorway to the lobby does not open directly on a lobby, court, street or public way, the passageway connecting with the street shall be without openings other than those for entrance and exit.


     (2)  Exit stairways serving balconies and galleries.  


  (i)  Every tier above the main floor shall have its required interior stairways located on opposite sides of the tier. Entrance to such stairways shall be direct from a crossaisle or from a corridor leading from a crossaisle.

  (ii)  Such stairways, when serving only the balcony and terminating within the auditorium, lobby or foyer, may be unenclosed. If not terminating within the auditorium, lobby or foyer, such stairways shall be enclosed below the balcony level served.

  (iii)  Such stairways serving only the balcony, may discharge to the main floor within the auditorium only if subsequent exit facilities are of the aggregate width required, and the discharge from such stairways is not at a greater angle than 90 degrees with exit travel from the main floor within the auditorium.

  (iv)  Such stairways serving one or more galleries, shall be enclosed except at the uppermost level served, and shall lead directly to a ground floor lobby or foyer, a street, or an open area leading to a street.

  (v)  When any stairway from a higher tier or level discharges to a lobby, foyer, mezzanine or other similar area, such area shall be separated from the auditorium by self-closing doors.

  (vi)  There shall be at least one exit serving each end of each cross-aisle and each such exit shall be not farther from the nearest end of the cross-aisle than one fourth of the length of the cross-aisle. There shall also be an exit not more than 75 feet from any seat, and every such exit provided along the course of the cross-aisle shall lead by means of tunnels or otherwise directly to a corridor or hallway communicating with a stairway.


     (3)  Supplementary (emergency) exits from balconies and galleries.  


  (i)  In addition to the stairways required by the previous paragraph each balcony or gallery having a capacity, exceeding 750 persons shall be provided with at least two supplementary exit stairways not less than 42 inches wide. When the capacity exceeds 1,500, four such supplementary exit stairways shall be provided. Supplementary interior exit stairways shall be provided with self-closing fire doors, and shall lead directly to the street, or to a passageway independent of other exits, or to an open court leading to a street. There shall be no communication from any portion of the building to any supplementary exit stairway enclosure except from the tier for which the stairway is exclusively intended.

  (ii)  Such supplementary exit stairways, when serving only the balcony and not exceeding 35 feet in height, may be exterior stairways.


     (4)  Waiting space.   Where persons are admitted to the building at times when seats are not available to them and are allowed to wait in a lobby, foyer or similar space until seats are available, the capacity of such space shall be included when determining the aggregate exit width needed.

     (5)  Stage exits.   At least two exits shall be provided at the stage level. These exits shall be at opposite sides of the stage. Openings in the proscenium wall do not constitute required stage exits.

     (b)   Seats and aisles.   (1)  Seats.  


  (i)  Seats, except those in boxes accommodating not more than 16 persons, shall be at least 32 inches from back to back and firmly secured to the floor.

  (ii)  There shall be at least five and one-half inches between the back of a seat and the front of the seat immediately behind it as measured between plumb lines with the seat in the down or extended position. The minimum clearance between a seat back and the front of the seat immediately behind it with the seat in the down, or extended position, shall be 10 inches for any orchestra seat and seven inches for any balcony or gallery seat.

  (iii)  Seats designed to be turned to the up position shall be constructed and maintained so as to remain up when turned up. "Push-back" type sliding seats shall be constructed and maintained so as to retract automatically when unoccupied.

  (iv)  The maximum number of seats in any row with egress at both ends shall be 15, and the maximum number of seats in any row with egress at one end only shall be eight.

  (v)  Platforms formed to receive seats in balconies or galleries shall be not less than 32 inches wide, nor more than 21 inches high, except immediately above or below a crossaisle, at which level steps may be recessed into the platform. No such platform shall be nearer than eight feet to the ceiling. Such platform shall be continuous across the aisle except when the rise between seat platforms is four inches or less and except at the first platform above a crossaisle.


     (2)  Longitudinal aisles.  


  (i)  Aisles with seats on one side only shall be at least 30 inches wide. Aisles with seats on both sides shall be at least 36 inches wide.

  (ii)  Every longitudinal aisle with exits at only one end shall have at least the minimum prescribed width where the aisle begins and shall increase in width toward the exits at the rate of one and one-half inches for each five feet of such aisle. If exits or crossaisles are provided at both ends, such aisle may be of uniform width throughout. This uniform width shall be not less than the average of the minimum width prescribed and the increased width as calculated for the length of aisle between crossaisles or exits.

  (iii)  Whenever an aisle borders on a means of exit, the aisle shall have a width of at least four feet along the width of the means of exit.

  (iv)  There shall be no steps in any main floor aisle, except at the rear of the main floor in a stadium type theatre.

  (v)  The maximum slope in aisles on the main floor shall be one in six for the first, second and third rows of seats from the rear; one in seven for the fourth, fifth and sixth rows; one in eight for the seventh, eighth and ninth; one in ten for the remaining rows.

  (vi)  In balcony and gallery aisles, when the rise between the seat platforms is four inches or less, the aisle shall be in the form of ramps with slopes not exceeding one in eight.

  (vii)  In balcony and gallery aisles, the steps if any shall be the full width of the aisles with treads not less than 10 inches wide and risers not more than seven and one-half inches high.


     (3)  Cross-aisles on the main floor.  


  (i)  Cross-aisles at least 44 inches wide shall connect either two longitudinal aisles or one such aisle and an exit door. They need not extend through a side block of seats where neither a side aisle nor an exit door is required or provided.

  (ii)  Where there are less than 27 rows and less than four blocks of seats, a cross-aisle shall extend to each sidewall exit not served by a side aisle, but such cross-aisle is not required to extend through the central block of seats when a cross-aisle is provided in front of the central block of seats.

  (iii)  Where there are 27 or more rows or four or more blocks of seats, cross-aisles shall be provided dividing the number of rows approximately equally and so that no block of seats shall have more than 22 rows.


     (4)  Cross-aisles in balconies and galleries.  


  (i)  One or more cross-aisles at least 44 inches wide shall be provided in every balcony or gallery having more than 10 rows of seats. Such cross-aisles shall be so arranged that no more than seven rows of seats intervene between any row and the nearer cross-aisle above or below.

  (ii)  Cross-aisles shall be separated from the seating spaces by railings at least 26 inches high except where the adjoining seat platform is on the same level as the cross-aisle.

  (iii)  No step is permitted in any cross-aisle.


     (5)  Cross-aisles in stadium-type theatres.  


  (i)  In a stadium-type theatre, the rearmost cross-aisle of the main floor may serve not more than 10 rows of seats behind it. The width of such cross-aisle shall be 44 inches minimum and shall be increased by eight inches for each 100 persons or major fraction thereof in the first 10 rows of seats behind such cross-aisle. Intermediate exits from such cross-aisle shall be provided so that the distance between such exits shall not exceed 75 feet.

  (ii)  If a secondary cross-aisle is provided at the rear of the stadium section, such section shall have not to exceed 20 rows of seats. One or more stairways complying with the pertinent requirements for balcony stairs shall be provided at each end of the secondary cross-aisle. Each such stairway shall have an aggregate capacity adequate for all persons seated behind the 10th row and need not be enclosed.

  (iii)  The requirements for railings along cross-aisles in balconies apply to stadium sections.


     (6)  Obstructions and standing room in aisles.  


  (i)  All longitudinal aisles, and the paths of egress leading from them to the outer doors, shall be kept unobstructed. No persons except employees shall be allowed to remain in them during a public assemblage.

  (ii)  Part of the rear cross-aisle on the main floor only may be used for standing room provided a space at least seven feet wide inside the rear auditorium wall is kept clear and unobstructed. No seats shall be provided in the standing room space.

  (iii)  The aggregate width of the main floor exits shall be increased to include the occupants of standing room areas.


     (c)   Railings.   (1)  Fascia railings.   The fascias of boxes and balconies shall have substantial walls or railings at least 26 inches in height above the floor. The railings at the ends of aisles extending to the fascia shall be at least 36 inches high if at the foot of steps, unless the aisle is level for a distance of two feet from the lowest step to the fascia, in which case the railing must be at least 32 inches high. Such walls and railings in galleries shall be at least six inches higher than those required above. No opening in any such railing shall exceed six inches in its lesser dimension.

     (2) Longitudinal aisle railings. In aisles along the walls in balconies, galleries and stadium sections, there shall be handrails affixed to the walls.

     (d)   Proscenium wall and curtain for stages as herein defined.   (1)  Proscenium wall.  


  (i)  The stage shall be separated from the auditorium by a wall having a fire-resistance rating of at least two hours and extending from the foundation to at least four feet above the stage roof, or the auditorium roof if the latter be the higher.

  (ii)  Any windows in the structure above the auditorium which face over the roof of the stage section must, when within 100 feet of the stage roof, be provided with stationary or automatic fire windows.


     (2)  Openings in proscenium wall.  


  (i)  Openings between the stage and auditorium, other than the stage opening, shall not be larger than 21 square feet each and shall be limited to two at the approximate stage level, and two below the stage level. Openings below the stage level, including doors from under the stage to pipetunnels, plenum chambers and other spaces to which access must be provided, shall be provided with fire doors having a rating of at least one hour, except that no door shall lead directly through the proscenium wall to a plenum chamber.

  (ii)  In openings whose greatest dimension does not exceed 18 inches three-eighths inch automatic incombustible damper plates may be used in lieu of fire doors.


     (3)  Fire curtain -- operation.  


  (i)  The proscenium opening shall be provided with a fire curtain so designed and constructed as to close the opening completely and prevent the passage of hot gases, flame and smoke.

  (ii)  Such curtain shall be so arranged and maintained that in case of fire it will be released automatically by an approved heat actuated device and will then descend at a rate of at least one foot per second and settle on the stage floor without shock. It shall also be equipped with effective devices on each side of the stage which will permit prompt release by manual means.


     (4)  Fire curtain -- construction.  


  (i)  The fire curtain shall consist of a rigid incombustible framework covered on both sides with incombustible material and having all its parts including the means of support made of incombustible material.

  (ii)  It shall extend past the sides and top of the proscenium opening by at least 12 inches on the stage side when closed.

  (iii)  The bottom shall have a yielding roll of asbestos or other fire-resistive material attached thereto to form a smoke seal when in contact with the surface of the floor.

     (5)  Smoke seals and guides.   The curtain shall be guided throughout its travel by a rigid steel track upon which the curtain guides shall travel. The track shall be built into a smoke seal made of rolled steel shapes and plates. The mounting and details of guides, track and smoke seal shall be such as to insure ready and positive closure of the curtains when subjected to a lateral pressure of five pounds per square foot. The smoke seal shall be at least 12 inches deep and six inches wide, be set back from the stage opening at least six inches and extend from the stage floor to a point at least three feet above the top of the raised curtain.

     (6)  Fire-resistive requirements.   The materials and design of curtains, curtain guides and smoke seals shall be designed and constructed to prevent the passage of flame during a fire test for a period of one-half hour in accordance with the standard time-temperature curve, while subject to an air pressure of not less than five pounds per square foot normal to its surface during such period.


     (e)   Stage section.   (1)  Construction.   From the inside line of the fire curtain to the back wall, the stage floor for a width of six feet more than the curtain opening may be entirely of wood construction. All the remainder of the stage floor behind the proscenium wall and extending in front of it to the edge of the apron shall have a fire-resistance rating of at least two hours, except that a wood floor finish with no air space between it and the fire-resistive construction underneath may be used from the inside line of the curtain to the edge of the apron.

     (2)  Openings in exterior walls.   All door or window openings in exterior walls of the stage section shall be provided with self-closing fire doors having a rating of at least one hour or with fire windows.

     (3)  Galleries and lofts.   Fly and tie galleries and the gridiron shall be constructed of incombustible materials and be easily accessible by stairs or ladders of incombustible materials. A means of exit shall also be provided from the gridiron to a roof or other adjacent structure having available and unobstructed access to grade.

     (4)  Scenery, workshops and storage rooms.   All stage scenery, curtains and decorations of combustible material and all woodwork on or about the stage shall be treated so as not to ignite readily nor support combustion. Scene docks, workshops and storage rooms shall be separated by construction having a fire-resistance rating of at least two hours from the other portions of the theatre. The only openings connecting such spaces with the stage shall be doorways provided with self-closing fire doors having a fire-resistance rating of at least one and one-half hours.

     (5)  Dressing rooms and dressing room exits.  


  (i)  Dressing rooms shall be separated from the other portions of the theatre by construction having a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour. Door openings in same shall be provided with self-closing fire doors having a rating of at least one hour.

  (ii)  Dressing rooms, when used as such, shall be ventilated by fire windows or metal frame and wired glass skylights opening directly to the open air, or shall be mechanically ventilated with at least six air changes per hour.

  (iii)  Dressing rooms located at or above the stage level shall have a means of exit independent of the stage and leading to a street or court.

  (iv)  When dressing rooms are located below the stage level at least two exits therefrom shall be provided, one of which shall lead directly to a street or court.

  (v)  The maximum distance of travel from any dressing room to the nearest grade exit, exit stairway or passageway, shall be 75 feet.


     (6)  Sanitary facilities.   Appropriate and sufficient washing and toilet facilities for both men and women shall be located within the stage section of the theatre for the use of performers and employees.

     (7)  Ventilators in stage section.  


  (i)  One or more ventilators constructed of metal or other incombustible material shall be placed near the center and above the highest part of the stage roof. The aggregate ventilating area shall not be less than 10 per cent of the floor area within the stage walls. Sills of doors or shutters shall be located at least three feet above the roof. Doors or shutters shall be constructed and maintained to open outward by force of gravity, when released, and shall be weighted sufficiently to overcome the effects of rust, dirt, frost, snow, expansion by heat or warping of the framework. Hinges shall be of wrought or malleable iron with bronze pins at least three-eighths inch in diameter. Glass, used in ventilators, must be protected against falling on the stage. If wire screens are used, they must be at least one-eighth inch galvanized iron with a one-inch mesh and so placed that, if clogged, neither the required vent area will be reduced nor the operating mechanism obstructed.

  (ii)     The shutters or doors shall be arranged to open instantly by the use of approved heat-actuated devices which shall be located in the ventilator above the roof line. Manual operation shall be provided by a multiple controlling hemp rope accessible from the stage level and a sharp knife shall be chained where it may be used for cutting this rope. While the theatre stage is in use, each ventilator shutter shall be maintained in operating condition.


     (8)  Sprinklers.  


  (i)  An automatic wet pipe sprinkler system conforming to the provisions of Industrial Code Part 20 shall be provided for the stage section.

  (ii)  Sprinkler heads shall be placed under the roof of the stage and under all superstructures above the stage so as to protect every square foot of the stage floor. An additional line of sprinkler heads shall be placed not over six feet apart and not more than two feet from the stage side of the fire curtain.

  (iii)  Sprinkler heads shall be placed under the stage, and in dressing rooms, scenes docks, workshops, storage rooms and all other enclosed spaces in the stage section.

  (iv)  Sprinkler heads are not permitted in such positions as to affect the heat-actuated devices controlling the stage ventilators. Switchboards, generators and other important electrical equipment shall be protected against water from the sprinkler system. Wherever there is a liability of damage from moving objects, scenery or other stage settings, sprinkler heads shall be provided with metal shields.


     (9)  Standpipes.  


  (i)  A standpipe system having adequate water supply and installed in accordance with the standards of the National Board of Fire Underwriters shall be located in the stage section.

  (ii)  Every portion of the stage, every dressing room section, basement, workshop, property room and every other room or space which is appurtenant to the stage and in which combustible material is stored or handled, shall be accessible to a standpipe hoseline so located that it will not require more than 100 feet of hose plus 20 feet to cover any such room or space.

  (iii)  The standpipes shall have internal diameters sufficient to deliver 50 gallons of water per minute under a pressure of 30 pounds per square inch at the highest outlet. Hose having a diameter of one and one-half inches shall be used.


     (10)  Extinguishers and fire tools.  


  (i)  There shall be provided at each side of the stage and the space under the stage two approved two and one-half gallon soda and acid or loaded stream fire extinguishers. On the stage one six-pound fire axe and one 10-foot fire hook shall be provided on each side. One approved two and one-half gallon soda and acid or loaded stream fire extinguisher shall be placed on each fly gallery, in each tier of dressing rooms, and in every scenery loft, workroom, storeroom or furnace room having an area of more than 1,000 square feet.

  (ii)  Extinguishers shall be charged annually, as well as immediately after use, and shall be tagged to indicate when this was done and by whom. Fire extinguishers and fire tools shall be securely mounted on walls, in plain sight and readily accessible.


     (f)   Smoking.   Smoking shall at no time be permitted in the stage section except as incidental to the action of a performance. It shall be permitted elsewhere only in the parts of the theatre designated by the enforcing authority.

§ 36-3.3 Theatres with stages -- existing.

     This section applies to theatres built before July 1, 1957.

     (a)   Exits.   (1)   Main floor entrance and exits.   The provisions of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of section 36-3.2 for new theatres shall apply except subparagraph (iii) thereof.

     (2)   Stairs serving balconies and galleries.   The general provisions of section 36-2.3 covering interior stairways shall apply.

     (3)   Waiting space.   The provisions of paragraph (4) of subdivision (a) of section 36-3.2 for waiting space in new theatres shall apply.

     (4)   Stage exits.  


  (i)  The stage shall be provided with not less than two means of exit remote from each other, each of which shall be accessible from all parts of the stage.

  (ii)  Each tier of dressing rooms shall be provided with a means of exit therefrom other than openings to the stage or through the proscenium wall.

  (iii)  From the fly gallery and gridiron, at least one means of exit shall be provided.

  (iv)  Each means of exit shall include a way to a street.


     (b)   Seats and aisles.   (1)   Seats.  


  (i)  Seats except those in boxes accommodating not more than 16 persons, shall be at least 30 inches from back to back and shall be firmly secured to the floor.

  (ii)  The maximum number of seats in any row with egress at both ends shall be 15, and the maximum number of seats in any row with egress at only one end shall be eight.


     (2)   Longitudinal aisles.  


  (i)  Aisles with seats on one side only shall be at least 30 inches wide. Aisles with seats on both sides shall be at least 36 inches wide.

  (ii)  Steps in balcony and gallery aisles shall extend the full width of the aisles.


     (3)   Cross-aisles on main floor.   The provisions of paragraph (3) of subdivision (b) of section 36-3.2 for cross-aisles on the main floor shall apply except that the minimum width of such cross-aisle shall be 36 inches. It may be 30 inches if it is necessary to remove more than one row of seats in order to widen the aisle to a width of 36 inches.

     (4)   Obstructions and standing room in aisles.   The provisions of paragraph (6) of subdivision (b) of section 36-3.2 relating to obstructions and standing room shall apply.

     (c)   Fascia railings.   Where the fascia of a balcony or gallery is 22 inches or less in height from the floor, a substantial handrail, the top of which shall be not less than 26 inches from the floor, shall be provided, unless it cuts the line of vision, in which case it may be not less than 24 inches from the floor. Where aisles are extended to the fascia, the rail at this point for the width of the aisle shall be increased in height to not less than 30 inches, unless the aisle is level for a distance of two feet from the inside of fascia. Where open rails are provided, a curbing not less than six inches high shall be provided, and if the space between the curbing and the uppermost railing exceeds 16 inches an intermediate rail shall be installed.

     (d)   Proscenium wall and curtain.   (1)   Proscenium wall.   The stage shall be separated from the orchestra or auditorium by a wall having a fire-resistance rating of at least two hours, extending from the foundation to at least three feet above the stage roof, or the auditorium roof if the latter be the higher, except that where the roof construction has a fire-resistance rating of at least two hours the proscenium wall is required to extend at least to the underside of the roof.

     (2)   Openings in the proscenium wall.   The provisions of paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of section 36-3.2 for openings in the proscenium wall shall apply.

     (3)   Fire curtain.   The provisions of subdivision (d) of section 36-3.2 regarding fire curtains in new theatres shall apply to all fire curtains hereafter installed in existing theatres. Existing curtains shall be replaced unless they furnish substantially equivalent protection.

     (e)   Stage section.   (1)   Scenery, workshops and storage rooms.  


  (i)  Workshops and storage rooms.   Workshops and storage rooms shall be enclosed at the top and sides by construction having a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour and shall have a floor finish of incombustible material. Protection by an automatic sprinkler system may be substituted for such enclosure. Openings connecting such spaces to the stage shall be provided with fire doors having a fire-resistance rating of at least three quarters of an hour.

  (ii)  All stage scenery, curtains and decorations of combustible material and all woodwork on or about the stage shall be treated so as not to ignite readily nor support combustion.


     (2)   Dressing rooms.  


  (i)  Dressing rooms, when so used, shall be ventilated by one or more windows or skylights, or shall be ventilated with at least six air changes per hour.

  (ii)  Dressing rooms, unless enclosed by partitions and a ceiling having a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour and with doors either self-closing fire doors or metal-covered self-closing doors, shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system.

  (iii)  The maximum distance from any dressing room to a grade exit, horizontal exit, exit stairway or passageway shall be 75 feet.


     (3)   Sanitary facilities.   The provisions of paragraph (6) of subdivision (e) of section 36-3.2 covering sanitary facilities shall apply.

     (4)   Ventilators in stage section.   The provisions of paragraph (7) of subdivision (e) of section 36-3.2 on ventilation of stage section shall apply.

     (5)   Extinguishers and fire tools.   The provisions of paragraph (10) of subdivision (e) of' section 36-3.2 on extinguishers and fire tools shall apply.

     (f)   Smoking.   The provisions of subdivision (f) of section 36-3.2 regarding smoking in new theatres shall apply.

§ 36-3.4 Motion picture theatres -- new and existing.

     (a)   Scope.   This section covers all theatres which exhibit motion pictures except summer theatres as defined herein and drive-in theatres. (See § 36-2.10 on projection booths and § 36-2.9, subd. [g], on screens.)

     (b)   New motion picture theatres.   Motion picture theatres built or converted to such use on or after July 1, 1957 shall be subject to all the applicable provisions of section 36-3.2 for new "theatres with stages" in addition to the pertinent general provisions of Subpart 36-2 hereof.

     (c)   Existing motion picture theatres.   Motion picture theatres built before July 1, 1957 shall be subject only to the applicable provisions of section 36-3.3 for existing "theatres with stages" in addition to the pertinent general provisions of Subpart 36-2 hereof.

§ 36-3.5 Summer theatres.

     (a)   Definition.   Theatres operating only during the months of May to October, inclusive, for a period of not more than 12 weeks, and whose capacity does not exceed 600 persons, constitute summer theatres and not temporary places of public assembly. Such theatres shall be governed only by the requirements of this section which apply to both existing and new summer theatres.

     (b)   Occupancy restrictions.   No summer theatre is permitted in a building any part of which is used as a garage, filling station, dry cleaning establishment, or for any other use that the enforcing authority may deem hazardous.

     (c)   Construction.   Interior exit stairways except those leading from the balcony to the auditorium shall have enclosures of at least one hour fire-resistance rating, and otherwise comply with subdivision (i) of section 36-2.3. Exterior stairways shall comply with the provisions of subdivisions (j) to (m) of section 36-2.3, inclusive except that they need not be incombustible. No opening except the stage opening and the doors leading back stage shall be permitted in the wall which separates the stage section from the auditorium.

     (d)   Balconies.   Summer theatres may have a single balcony containing not more than 25 per cent of the total seating capacity. The balcony shall be provided with at least two exit stairways, remote from each other, one of which may be an exterior stairway.

     (e)   General exit requirements.   (1)  At least two means of exit, not less than five feet wide and remote from each other, shall be provided from the main floor. If the capacity exceeds 500, there shall be three such means of exit.

     (2) All exit doors and stairs shall comply with the provisions of subdivisions (e) and (h) of section 36-2.3.

     (3) All exits shall lead to a public way.

     (f)   Exit signs and lights.   During occupancy, the lighting of exitways and exit signs shall comply with the requirements of section 36-2.3.

     (g)   Seats and aisles.   The arrangements of seats and aisles shall comply with the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (b) of section 36-3.3, except that seats shall not be required to be secured to the floor when the required width of aisles is increased by at least 50 per cent.

     (h)   Standing room.   Standing room is prohibited. All longitudinal aisles and the paths of egress leading from them to the outer doors shall be kept unobstructed. No persons except employees shall remain in them during a public assembly.

     (i)   Projection booths.   Motion picture projection booths hereafter installed shall comply with the requirements of section 36-2.10.

     (j)   Scenery, curtains and decorations.   All stage scenery, curtains, projection screens and decorations of combustible material shall be treated so as not to ignite readily nor support combustion.

     (k)   Stage exits.   At least two exits shall be provided at the stage level at opposite sides of the stage.

     (l)   Dressing room exits.   Dressing rooms shall have unobstructed access to an exitway leading to a place of safety. Dressing room doors opening onto the stage constitute proper exits only if not more than 25 feet from an exit leading directly to grade.

     (m)   Ventilation of stage section.   The stage shall be provided with a means of ventilation through the roof or the highest part of the outside stage wall to the outside air, having an aggregate ventilation area not less than 10 per cent of the floor area of the stage. Such means of ventilation, if not kept in open position, must be provided with means for quick opening either manually or automatically.

     (n)   Work shops and storage rooms.   All storage and work rooms in or adjoining the structure shall be enclosed by partitions and doors of one hour fire-resistance rating. No combustible materials shall be stored in the structure except in such storage or work rooms.

     (o)   Fire extinguishers.   There shall be provided at least two approved two and one-half gallon soda and acid or loaded stream fire extinguishers, placed in plain sight and readily accessible. One of these shall be in the stage section and one in each property or storage room.

     (p)   Sanitary facilities.   Clean and adequate toilet rooms properly designated for both sexes shall be provided. Such rooms shall be maintained in proper repair and in sanitary condition. The provisions of section 36-2.8 apply.

     (q)   Smoking.   Smoking is prohibited in any summer theatre while occupied as a place of public assembly except as incidental to a performance. This requirement shall be announced to the audience before and at least once during any meeting or performance and "No Smoking" signs shall be posted.

§ 36-3.6 Assembly halls and other indoor places of public assembly.

     (a)   General application.   This section sets forth the requirements for assembly halls as defined herein, and any other indoor places of public assembly to which the statutory definition of place of public assembly may apply except such places as are covered by the special provisions of sections 36-3.2, 36-3.3, 36-3.4 and 36-3.5 of this Part. It applies to both new and existing structures except as may be otherwise indicated herein.

     (b)   Miscellaneous requirements.   All the provisions of Subpart 36-2 hereof, where applicable, shall govern the places which are the subject of this section except as enumerated in the following subdivisions.

     (c)   Stages.   Assembly halls which have a stage as defined herein, if over 600 capacity, shall also comply with the provisions of subdivisions (d) and (e) of section 36-3.2 if hereafter constructed or converted and shall comply with the provisions of subdivisions (d) and (e) of section 36-3.3 if existing. If of 600 or less capacity, the requirements for stages of summer theatres shall apply for either new or existing places.

     (d)   Aisles and seating.   (1)  Where the seating is in rows either on the main floor or in galleries, the seats and aisles shall be arranged as per subdivision (b) of section 36-3.2. Such seats need not be secured to the floor unless set on steps.

     (2)  Where the seating is not in rows, each room or space shall be so arranged that convenient access by means of aisles at least 36 inches in width will be provided to each exit. Such aisles shall not be obstructed by chairs, tables or other objects.

     (e)   Portable, foldable and temporary bleachers.   All stands and bleachers set on the main floor shall comply with the relevant requirements of section 36-3.7.

     (f)   Dressing rooms.   If there is no stage as defined herein but dressing rooms are provided for entertainers or others, such dressing rooms when so used shall comply with the requirements of paragraph (2) of subdivision (e) of section 36-3.8, "Dressing rooms of existing theatres".

     (g)   Fire extinguishers.   In addition to the fire extinguishers called for in kitchens, stage sections and other special locations, one approved two and one half gallon soda and acid or loaded stream extinguisher shall be provided on each floor having an area of 2,000 square feet or more. If the areas of such floors are over 2,000 square feet, additional extinguishers shall be provided at the rate of one for each additional 2,000 square feet or major fraction thereof. All extinguishers, wherever located, shall be securely mounted in prominent places and be recharged annually. They shall be tagged to show dates of such recharging and name of person doing the recharging.

     (h)   Bowling alleys.   (1)  General.   Where flammable liquids, such as pyroxylin lacquers and shellac, are used within a place of public assembly for the finishing and maintenance of pins and alleys the requirements of this subdivision shall be observed.

     (2)  Finishing rooms.  


  (i)  All pin finishing involving the use of flammable liquids shall be conducted in a space separated from the remainder of the place of public assembly by walls and ceilings having a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour. The floor finish shall be of cement, concrete, tile or other non-absorbent and incombustible material and there shall be no air space in or between the finish flooring and the supporting floor beneath it. Openings in the surrounding walls to other portions of the place of public assembly shall be provided with self-closing fire doors having a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour.

  (ii)  Each finishing room whose area exceeds 100 square feet shall be provided with at least two means of exit remote from each other.


     (3)  Equipment of finishing rooms.   Finishing rooms shall be equipped with exhaust ventilation which shall provide at least one air change every three minutes during and for 15 minutes after the use of flammable liquids. Exhaust ventilation shall discharge to the outer air. Wiring shall be in rigid conduit with vapor-proof lighting fixtures and otherwise in accordance with the requirements of the National Electric Code. Lathe and fan motors shall be of the enclosed type or housed-in and motor control switches shall be of the explosion-proof type. The room shall contain no heaters of the open flame or electric heating element type. Lathes and sanding or buffing machines shall be grounded. An approved 10 pound carbon dioxide extinguisher shall be provided, located adjacent to an exit door.

     (4)  Storage and use of flammable liquids.   All flammable liquids shall be stored in original metal containers or approved safety cans having a capacity not exceeding five gallons and the maximum amount which may be kept on the premises shall not exceed 25 gallons. Dip tanks shall be provided with a close-fitting sheet metal cover controlled by an approved heat-actuated device. No refinishing of alleys or pins that involves the use of flammable liquids is permitted during occupancy of the place of public assembly by the public. No flammable liquids shall be used while machine buffing or sanding is being carried on in the same room.

     (5)  Smoking.   Smoking is prohibited in any finishing room and a "NO SMOKING" sign shall be posted in a conspicuous place in each such room.

     (i)   Skating rinks.   Skating rinks shall comply with all relevant provisions of this section. No skating rink shall be located so that any required exit is more than three feet above or below the surface of the ground outside the structure.

§ 36-3.7 Grandstands and bleachers.

     (a)   General.   This section contains the requirements for the design of grandstands and bleachers of all types both for indoor and outdoor use. It applies to both existing and new structures except as otherwise expressly provided.

     (b)   Definitions.   As used in this section, the following terms will be deemed to have the meanings listed below.

     (1)  Grandstand.   Any permanent or temporary structure intended primarily to support an assemblage of spectators and designed to remain in one specific location. It does not apply to the permanent seating arrangements in theatres and assembly halls.

     (2)  Portable stands or bleachers.   Assemblies of prefabricated units, readily erected, dismantled and transported and used or intended for use as movable or temporary supports for persons. Sectional non-foldable bleachers are included under this term.

     (3)  Foldable stands or bleachers.   Movable types of seating arrangements that may be closed into a compact unit, the seat supporting members being so connected that the unit will fold or telescope into a relatively small space without being dismantled.

     (c)   Design, construction and maintenance.   (1)  Grandstands and bleachers permanent or portable, shall be designed, constructed and maintained to support in addition to their own weight, a uniformly distributed live load of not less than 100 pounds per square foot of gross horizontal projection of the grandstand or similar structure. All seats and footboard members shall be designed for live loads of not less than 120 pounds per linear foot.

     (2)  Such structures if used outdoors or in tents shall he designed, constructed and maintained to resist, with or without live load, a horizontal wind load of 30 pounds per square foot of all vertical projections of the stand.

     (3)  Such structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained to resist a horizontal swaying force applied to the seats in a direction parallel to the length of the seats, of 24 pounds per linear foot of seats, and in a direction perpendicular to the length of the seats, of 10 pounds per linear foot of seats.

     (d)   Railings.   Every floor level, seat platform, bleacher seat, deck, stairway, ramp or aisle which is occupied by the public and is more than two feet above the adjacent ground or floor level, shall have at all open sides or sections thereof a protective railing or guard at least 36 inches high.

     (e)   Seats.   (1)  The highest level of any seat platform in a wood grandstand shall not exceed 12 feet above the ground or other surface below it if such grandstand is within a tent, nor 20 feet above the ground or other surface below it if such grandstand is otherwise located.

     (2)  Seats permanently fixed to such platforms shall not exceed 20 in any row between aisles, nor 10 in any row between an aisle and a railing or wall.

     (3)  Seats not permanently fixed to such platform shall be used in rows only when arranged in rigid units of five or more and secured against displacement. Such seats shall not exceed 15 in any row between aisles nor 10 in any row between an aisle and a railing or wall.

     (4)  Step-type continuous seats with or without backs shall not exceed 30 in any row between aisles nor 15 between an aisle and a railing or wall; except, however, that they shall not exceed 20 and 10, respectively, in a place of wood construction.

     (5)  For continuous benches or bleacher seating without separating arms between seats, 18 inches of bench length shall constitute one seat.

     (6)  Rows of seats with backs shall be at least 27 inches back to back, if without backs, 22 inches. Clearance between the back of one row and the front of the row behind it shall be at least eight inches.

     (f)   Aisles and cross-aisles in permanent grandstands.   (1)  The minimum width of longitudinal aisles with seats on both sides shall be 36 inches and with seats on one side only, 30 inches. Such widths shall be considered as having capacities of 150 and 125 persons, respectively. Every such aisle having an exit at only one end shall be increased in width toward the exit to provide a clear width of at least 12 inches for each 50 persons served. When a means of exit is provided at both ends, such aisles may be of average required width throughout subject to the required minimum width. The minimum width of cross-aisles shall be 36 inches and in no case less than 12 inches for each 50 persons served.

     (2)  The number of rows of seats between cross-aisles shall not exceed 20 for the first or a single bank of seats, nor 15 for the second bank. When there is only one cross-aisle above or below a bank of seats the number of rows of seats exiting to such cross-aisle shall not exceed 15 for any first or single bank, nor 10 for the second bank. No cross-aisles shall be required between rows of seats located between an aisle and a railing or wall.

     (3)  Boxes do not constitute banks of seats but their capacity shall be included in the calculation of aisle and exit widths. Boxes shall have direct access to a cross-aisle.

     (4)  The distance between exits from a cross-aisle shall not exceed 100 feet, except that where the length of a cross-aisle does not exceed 50 feet it may be served by only one exit.

     (5)  No step is permitted in any cross-aisle.

     (6)  Steps in aisles shall be the full width of the aisle. No riser shall exceed eight inches in height and no tread shall be less than 10 inches in width.

     (g)   Portable and foldable bleachers.   (1)  Portable and foldable grandstands shall conform to the requirements of this section and also to the following special requirements which shall take precedence in the event of any variance.

     (2)  Bleacher sections shall contain not more than 24 rows of seats.

     (3)  Aisles at least 36 inches wide shall be provided if there are 12 or more rows of seats or if the vertical distance between seats exceeds 14 inches.

     (4)  The open ends of all bleacher sections shall be provided with guard railings at least 36 inches high for that portion of the stand above the fourth row of seats. The backs of all sections which are not placed against a wall shall also be guarded in the same way.

     (5)  If any bleacher section is set on a platform raised above the floor or ground, a crossaisle and guard railing shall be provided at the front of such section.

     (6)  Proprietary or patented bleachers of the rollaway, telescopic or fold-up type shall be approved.

§ 36-3.8 Open air places of public assembly.

     (a)   Scope.   This section sets forth the requirements applying to premises other than entirely enclosed buildings which are used for public gatherings. It applies to both new and existing structures except as may be otherwise indicated herein.

     (b)   General requirements.   The general requirements prescribed in this subdivision also apply to the other subdivisions of this section unless otherwise specified.

     (1)  Grandstands and bleacher construction.   Grandstands and bleacher construction shall comply with the requirements of section 36-3.7, "Grandstands and bleachers". Stairways in open air structures are not required to be enclosed.

     (2)  Limit on combustible construction.  


  (i)  Any permanent grandstand or any similar unenclosed structure located in or serving as an open air place of public assembly, of wood frame construction hereafter constructed, shall be separated from other structures of combustible construction by an open space at least 15 feet wide.

  (ii)  If the space beneath any grandstand is used for any purpose except exitways, the portion of the space so used shall be fully enclosed by ceilings and partitions having a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour.

  (iii)  No permanent grandstand of wood frame construction shall have more than one tier of seats.


     (3)  Openings in floor or seating space.   Openings in the floor or seating space of any permanent open air place of public assembly which exceed one-half inch in any dimension, and which are above any space occupied by the public, shall have thereunder a protective guard of one-half inch wire mesh.

     (4)  Seats and aisles.  


  (i)  In permanent grandstands every seat shall be fastened securely in place except in boxes containing not more than 16 portable seats or chairs.

  (ii)  The provisions of section 36-3.7 regarding seats and aisles shall be complied with.

  (iii)  All aisles shall be kept unobstructed and no person except an employee shall be allowed to occupy same except while passing in or out.


     (5)  Exits.   (i)  Distance of travel.   The distance of travel from any seat to a public way, an open field or other adequate open space, shall not exceed 150 feet in open air places of public assembly.


  (ii)  Minimum and maximum widths.   In open air places of public assembly, the minimum width of any doorway or gateway used by the public shall be three feet, and of any corridor, passage, ramp or stairway four feet. Every such means of exit shall be increased in width cumulatively towards the outside exit doorways or gateways so that a clear width will be provided at the rate of 12 inches for each 50 persons served in the case of stairways and eight inches for each 50 persons served by doorways, gateways, corridors, passages and ramps.

  (iii)  No turnstiles are permitted in any required means of exit.

  (iv)  Exit connections.   Every cross-aisle, corridor, passageway, ramp or stairway shall lead to or be directly connected with an outside exit doorway or gateway on the main exit level, or with an open field or other adequate open space leading to an outside exit.


     (6)  Lighting.  


  (i)  During occupancy, all open air places of public assembly, and the exitways and aisles therein shall be lighted as required by subdivision (e) of section 36-2.6.

  (ii)  In addition to the above requirements, all tents having a seated audience of over 300 shall comply with the requirements of subdivision (f) of section 36-2.6 regarding an emergency source of light.


     (7)  Removal of combustible trash.   The site shall be cleared of all straw, dry grass and similar combustible matter for at least 50 feet from all combustible structures.

     (8)  Sanitary facilities.   Clean and adequate toilet rooms or enclosures properly designated for both sexes shall be provided. In places to be occupied more than two successive days, the provisions of section 36-2.8 apply.

     (c)   Tents.   (1)  Tent canvas.  


  (i)  Every tent used as a place of public assembly shall be treated so as to meet the requirements for resistance to fire prescribed in the federal specifications for fire, water and weather resistant cotton duck, CCC-D746, when tested new, or renewed. Subsequent to this treatment no process may be used which increases its flammability.

  (ii)  The public shall not be admitted to any tent erected as a place of public assembly, nor shall animals be stabled in any tent in connection with a place of public assembly until the material of the tent has been accepted by the enforcing authority.

  (iii)  Written evidence of approval by a nationally recognized testing laboratory or the board that the material of the tent complies with the above specifications may be accepted by the enforcing authority as evidence of proper treatment for 12 months after such approval was granted.

  (iv)  In the absence of such evidence, or at the direction of the enforcing authority, a test of the material shall be conducted as follows: Two strips not less than six inches wide and 12 inches long shall be cut at random from the top or side wall sections of the tent or a test clamp may be used, at an edge or slit in the tent itself'. The two strips or test sections shall be thoroughly dry and then subjected to an open flame applied to the lower edge, the strips or sections being held vertically, for 12 seconds. Neither strip nor section shall flame for more than two seconds, after the test flame is removed from contact, nor shall the average length of char exceed two and one-half inches.


     (2)  Exits from tents.   For tents having capacities of 600 or less there shall be at least two exits; for capacities from 601 to 1,000 there shall be at least three exits; and for capacities of 1,000 or more there shall be at least four. The main entrance may be counted as one of these exits, the others shall be in the side walls spaced apart as uniformly as possible. Such exits shall be maintained so as to have openings at least six feet wide to a height of eight feet above the ground. An attendant shall be stationed at each sidewall exit while the tent is being used as a place of public assembly to see that the required width and height of the exits is unobstructed.

     (3)  Combustible materials.   No hay, straw, shavings or similar combustible materials other than that necessary for the daily feeding and care of animals shall be permitted within any tent used in connection with a place of public assembly, except that sawdust or shavings may be used if kept damp.

     (4)  Smoking.   Smoking shall be prohibited in any tent while used as a place of public assembly. This requirement shall be announced to the audience before and at least once during any meeting or performance. Signs with three inch high block letters reading "No Smoking" shall be conspicuously posted at all entrances and at frequent intervals in view of the audience.

     (5)  Motion picture film.   Motion picture film shall be used, handled or stored in accordance with the requirements of section 36-2.10.

     (6)  Spot or effect lighting.   When spot or effect lights are within six feet of any combustible material other than tent poles, such material shall be protected by incombustible nonconductive material at least one-quarter inch thick.

     (7)  Tent pole support.  


  (i)  The center poles of every tent over 250 feet long and 125 feet wide or having over four center poles, shall be guyed with wire rope.

  (ii)  Tent poles and their supports shall be of sufficient strength to withstand a wind pressure or suction of 10 pounds per square foot of tent surface and to resist a wind pressure of 20 pounds per square foot of projected area of tent.


     (8)  Fire extinguishers.  


  (i)  Every tent having over 1,000 square feet of ground area which is used for public assembly, shall have conspicuously placed therein, at least one approved two and one-half gallon soda and acid or equivalent type fire extinguisher.

  (ii)  Additional extinguishers of the same type shall be provided at the rate of one for each 2,000 square feet of ground area over 1,000 square feet within such tent.


     (d)   Drive in theatres.   (1)  Construction of buildings.   Any building used in connection with a drive-in theatre and occupied by the public shall be subject to the construction requirements of subdivision (a) of section 36-2.4.

     (2)  Exits.   Exits shall be provided from any such buildings on the basis of one person to each six square feet of floor space and otherwise in compliance with the exit requirements of Subpart 36-2 insofar as they are applicable.

     (3)  Travel to exits.   (i)  Exits to a street or road from a drive-in theatre shall be so arranged that lines of incoming and outgoing travel do not cross.


  (ii)  At no point in the exit travel of any car shall the width of driveway be less than necessary to accommodate two cars abreast.

  (iii)  Except when backing from the parked position, it shall not be necessary for any car to travel in reverse to reach an exit.


     (4)  Exit signs.   The path of exit travel from each row of cars shall be plainly marked by directional signs which shall be clearly visible to the drivers at night.

     (5)  Disposition of cars.  


  (i)  Each row of cars shall be separated by a distance of at least 38 feet between the lines of front bumpers.

  (ii)  The distance between the first row of cars or seats and the screen must exceed the height of the screen structure by at least 20 feet.

  (iii)  No car shall be parked within 20 feet of the projection booth or any building open to the public.


     (6)  Screen and screen structure.   The screen and its supporting structure shall be designed to withstand a wind pressure of at least 25 pounds per square foot.

     (7)  Motion picture film.   The pertinent provisions of section 36-2.10 shall apply to the use, handling and storage of motion picture film with the following exceptions:


  (i)  Where cellulose acetate or safety film is used exclusively and the projection booth is separated from other occupied structures, the following ventilation shall suffice in lieu of the provisions of subdivision (g) of section 36-2.10. Means shall be provided to exhaust at least 15 cubic feet of air per minute for each arc lamp housing and provide at least eight air changes per hour for the projection room. Open doorways and windows may be used to provide such ventilation.

  (ii)  Ladders or stairways leading from any required exits from booths and not over 10 feet high may be of combustible material.

  (iii)  Sanitary facilities shall be readily available to the operators.

  (iv)  Sprinklers are not required.


     (8)  Seats for spectators.   Seats for spectators shall be provided only in areas where cars may not be driven.

     (9)  Fire extinguishers.   An approved 10 pound carbon dioxide or two and one-half gallon foam fire extinguisher shall be provided at a central location so as to be readily accessible in case any car catches fire. Attendants shall be instructed in its use. Extinguishers shall be checked annually and recharged after use and shall be tagged to indicate when this was done and by whom.

     (10)  Sanitary facilities.   Clean and adequate toilet rooms properly designated for both sexes shall be provided. Such rooms shall be maintained in proper repair and in sanitary condition. The provisions of section 36-2.8 apply. The number of occupants shall be taken as three persons per car.

Historical Note:   Subd. (b) amd., filed June 9, 1967 to be eff. July 1, 1967. Substituted new par. (6).

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