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Part 8. Construction, Guarding, Equipment, Ect

Part 8. CONSTRUCTION, GUARDING, EQUIPMENT, MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION OF ELEVATORS, DUMBWAITERS, ESCALATORS, HOISTS AND HOISTWAYS IN FACTORIES AND MERCANTILE ESTABLISHMENTS

(Statutory authority:Labor Law, §§27-a, 27, 29, 200, 241-a, 255, 263, 270 [subd. 6], 316)

Subpart 8-1. POWER DRIVEN
Definition of Terms

§ 8-1.1 Definitions.

(a) Whenever used in this Part approved means approved by the Industrial Commissioner.
(b) Existing installations means installations made before March 1, 1923.
(c) Future; hereafter means installations made after March 1, 1923.
(d) Owner means the owner or owners of the freehold of the premises, or the lessee or joint lessees of the whole thereof, or his, her or their agent in charge of the property.
(e) Tenant means the person, firm or corporation in actual possession of the premises.
(f) Fireproof material means such material as specified in sections 8-1.60, 8-1.61 and 8-1.62.
(g) Fireproof floor and roof * means a floor or roof so constructed and of such material as specified in section 264 and subdivision 2 of section 270 of the Labor Law and Industrial Code section 8-1.60.
(h) Fireproof partitions* means partitions so constructed and of such material as specified in section 263 of the Labor Law and Industrial Code section 8-1.61.
(i) Fire door* means a door so constructed and of such material as specified in section 8-1.62.
(j) Elevator shall mean all the machinery, apparatus and equipment directly used in raising and lowering in a vertical or substantially vertical direction, persons or freight in a car, or platform operating in permanent guides or rails. This does not include dumbwaiters.
* Chapter 535 of the Laws of 1941, generally amended sections 260 through 265 of the Labor Law dealing with fire-resistive construction. Pursuant thereto the Board of Standards and Appeals promulgated Industrial Code Rule No. 7, relating to fire-resistive construction which became effective on July 1, 1942. [For subsequent provisions effective December 30, 1965, see Part (Rule No.) 7 of this Title].
(k) Elevator car or platform means the car or platform which is operated either in an elevator hoistway or in an unenclosed area.
(l) Power elevator means an elevator in which the motion of the car is obtained by applying energy other than by hand or gravity.
(m) Hand power elevator (see §8-2.1, rules for hand power elevators).
(n) Passenger elevator means an elevator on which passengers or employees are permitted to ride.
(o) Freight elevator means an elevator used for carrying freight on which only the operator and the employees necessary for loading and unloading shall be permitted to ride.
(p) Dumbwaiter means all the machinery, construction, apparatus and equipment directly used in raising or lowering vertically a car, cage, or platform, shelf or shelves, the dimensions of which shall not exceed nine square feet in a horizontal section and four feet in height, and which are used exclusively for carrying small packages and merchandise.
(q) Platform elevator means a freight elevator, the platform of which is suspended from chains or cables from its four corners directly, or to two to one sheaves, and is without car crossheads and safeties.
(r) Sidewalk elevator means an elevator used for carrying freight and operated from a point below sidewalk level to the sidewalk or to a sidewalk or to a height not to exceed wagon or freight car loading level.
(s) Escalator means a moving continuous inclined stairway or runway used for raising or lowering persons.
(t) Automatic push button control elevator means an elevator, the operation of which is controlled by buttons in such manner that all landing stops are automatic.
(u) Hoist shall mean all machinery, apparatus and equipment when used in a hoistway for raising or lowering freight by means of a sling or hook without a platform or car.
(v) Electric elevator. An electric elevator is an elevator in which the motion of the car is obtained by an electric motor directly applied to the elevator machinery.
(w) Hydraulic elevator. A hydraulic elevator is an elevator in which the motion of the car is obtained by liquid under pressure.
(x) Plunger elevator. A plunger elevator is a hydraulic elevator having a ram or plunger directly attached to the underside of the car platform.
(y) Single belted elevator. A single belted elevator is an elevator in which the machine is connected to a reversible motor, engine or turbine by a belt or other similar means.
(z) Double belted elevator. A double belted elevator is an elevator in which the machine is connected to a separate source of power, such as shafting, by two belts or similar means, and in which the direction of motion is changed without reversal of the prime mover.
(aa) Elevator machinery shall mean the hoisting machinery and its equipment used in the operation of the elevator.
(bb) Winding drum machine. A winding drum machine is an elevator machine in which the cables are fastened to, and wind on, a drum.
(cc) Traction machine. A traction machine is an elevator machine in which the motion of the car is obtained by means of traction between the driving drum, sheave or sheaves, and the hoisting cables.
(dd) Hoistway means any shaft, well-hole, hatchway or other vertical opening or space unenclosed, partly or wholly enclosed, in which the elevator car or dumbwaiter travels or in which material is raised or lowered by means of a sling or hook.
(ee) Landing means that portion of a floor, balcony or platform used to receive and discharge passengers or freight.
(ff) Travel means the vertical distance traveled by an elevator or dumbwaiter from the lowest to the highest landing.
(gg) Sliding door means a door sliding in a vertical or horizontal direction.
(hh) Swinging door means a door, one or more sections of which may swing outwardly.
(ii) Combination slide and swinging door means a door, one or more sections of which are sliding and sections of which may swing out.
(jj) Full automatic door or gate means a door or gate which is opened automatically by the action of the elevator car approaching any landing and closes automatically through the action of the car as it leaves or passes any landing.
(kk) Manually operated door or gate means a door or gate which is opened and closed by hand.
(ll) Self-closing door or gate means a door or gate which is opened manually and which closes automatically through the action of the car as it leaves the landing.

Note: Hoistway doors that are closed through the action of a heat-releasing device are not considered self-closing.

(mm) Power driven door or gate means a door or gate which is opened and closed by motive power other than by the movement of the car.
(nn) Interlock.
(1) An interlock is a device which shall:
(i) prevent the movement of the car:
(a) unless only that hoistway door or doors, opposite which the car is standing, are closed and locked (door unit system), or

(b) unless all hoistway doors are closed and locked (hoistway unit system);

Note: The interlock shall not prevent the movement of the car when the emergency release hereinafter described is in temporary use, or when the car is being moved by a slow-speed car-leveling device.


(ii) prevent the opening of a hoistway door or doors from the landing side:
(a) unless the car is standing at that landing, and

(b) unless the car is coasting past the landing with its car-control mechanism in the STOP position.



(2) A hoistway door or gate shall be considered closed and locked when within four inches of full closure, if at this position and any other up to full closure the door or gate cannot be opened from the landing side more than four inches.

(3) Interlocks may permit the starting of the elevator when the door is within four inches or less of full closure, provided that the door can again be opened up to four inches from full closure from any position within this range except that of full closure.

(oo) Electric contact.
(1) An electric contact is an electric device which shall:
(i) prevent the movement of the car:
(a) unless only that hoistway door or doors, opposite which the car is standing, are within two inches of the fully closed position (door unit system), or

(b) unless all hoistway doors are within two inches of the fully closed position.



(2) The mechanical lock or latch on the door or gate shall be within the locking range, which shall not exceed two inches of full closure before the electric contact is closed.

Note: The contact shall not prevent the movement of the car when the emergency release hereinafter described is in temporary use, or when the car is being moved by a slow-speed car-leveling device.

(pp) Emergency release. An emergency release is a device the purpose of which is to make inoperative interlocks or electric contacts.
(qq) Emergency key. An emergency key is an instrument for opening a lock or latch.

§ 8-1.2 Approval of new devices.

Special safety equipment or new devices to be used on elevator installations, not contemplated by this Part, may be used when approved by the Department of Labor.

§ 8-1.3 Exit passageway.

(a) An unobstructed exit or passageway from an elevator to the outside of the building shall be provided at the lowest point of an elevator's travel.
(b) Passageway under car. No elevator car installed after April 15, 1915 shall be permitted to descend into a passageway. (See also §8-1.26.)

§ 8-1.4 Freight elevators-transportation of employees.

(a) The commissioner may, upon application, permit the use of freight elevators for the transportation of employees, provided the elevator will lift not less than 75 pounds per square foot of floor area, and the elevator car is equipped with guide safeties actuated by a speed governor, and there is in attendance a competent operator, and there is provided an emergency exit as required by the provisions of paragraph (5) of subdivision (a) of section 8-1.40.
Exception: Freight elevator hoistways equipped with trap doors.

(b) The maximum number of persons permitted to be carried shall be based on 150 pounds per person.

§ 8-1.5 Doors and gates.

(a) All elevator car and hoistway doors and gates shall be closed before the car leaves a landing.
Exception: Self-closing hoistway doors and gates.

(b) No hoistway door or gate shall be wedged or otherwise fastened in an open position.
(c) All hoistway doors and gates and their equipment shall be maintained in an operative condition.

§ 8-1.6 Interlocks and electric contacts.

(a) Interlocks and electric contacts shall be of a type approved by the Industrial Commissioner. Every such device shall have an emergency release conforming to section 8-1.57 and approved by the commissioner.
(b) Interlocks, electric contacts or other approved devices performing similar functions, shall not be tampered with or intentionally rendered inoperative except in emergency as provided in section 8-1.57.

§ 8-1.7 Elevator and maintenance inspection.

(a) All parts of the elevator machinery, the hoistway gates and doors and car safeties, shall be maintained in a safe condition.
(b) Passenger elevators shall be regularly inspected every three months and freight elevators shall be inspected every six months, by some person competent to perform such service. Inspection reports showing data of inspection and condition of the elevator and hoistway shall be prepared and signed by the person making such inspection; the reports shall be made on a form provided by and with such information as required by the Industrial Commissioner and shall be kept on file for his examination. A report by a recognized casualty company will be acceptable in lieu of the above if it contains the required information.

§ 8-1.8 Posting of signs.

(a) All elevator cars shall have a sign posted conspicuously, which shall show the maximum rated load that can be carried on the elevator.
(b) All freight elevator cars shall have a sign posted conspicuously, reading as follows:

"PASSENGERS NOT PERMITTED".

(c) All signs, except capacity signs, shall consist of letters not less than one inch in height.
(d) Manually operated doors or gates of freight elevator hoistways, except those provided with interlocks, electric contacts or other approved devices performing similar functions, shall be provided with a sign posted conspicuously on the landing side of the doors or gates

"ELEVATOR-KEEP THIS SHUT".

§ 8-1.9 Car operator.

(a) Every passenger elevator shall be in charge of a competent and reliable operator not less than 18 years of age.
(b) No person less than 18 years of age shall operate a freight elevator.
Exception: Automatic push button control elevators.

PLANS FOR HOISTWAY AND ELEVATOR INSTALLATIONS

§ 8-1.10 Submit hoistway plans for approval.

(a) Before any hoistway shall hereafter be constructed, the architect, owner or contractor shall file with the Department of Labor two sets of plans showing its location and construction, and on forms provided by the Department of Labor specifications in triplicate of hoistway, hoistway gate and door construction.
(b) Before any elevator, dumbwaiter or escalator shall hereafter be installed, the architect or contractor for such work or the owner if making such installation shall file with the Department of Labor, two sets of plans showing the location of machinery and equipment to be installed and on forms provided by the Department of Labor specifications in triplicate of the following: capacity and speed, weight of car complete, method of operating, type of limiting stops and switches, diameter of sheaves, size and number of hoisting and counterweight ropes, type of speed governor and safeties, overhead and pit clearances, type of buffers, machine and overhead grating, and the construction of hoistway doors or gates and car doors or gates when required.
(c) No elevator, dumbwaiter or escalator shall hereafter be installed without approval of the plans and specifications of the installation and hoistway construction by the Department of Labor.

§ 8-1.11 Test and inspection of installation.

(a) The person or firm making installation as specified in section 8-1.10 shall notify the commissioner, in writing, at least three days before completion of the installation, and shall in the presence of a representative of the commissioner subject the elevator to the tests prescribed by this section.
(1) The cars of all power driven elevators shall be loaded to their maximum carrying capacity and operated up and down the hoistway several times to test the lifting capacity of the machine and the operation of the upper and lower automatic limit devices. The car shall be stopped at various levels in the hoistway to test the operation of the machine brake.

(2) The cars of all elevators having speed governors the normal speed of which is in excess of 100 feet per minute shall be loaded to their maximum carrying capacity, run to the top landing and made to travel downward in excess of normal speed so as to automatically operate the speed governor, the car safety and the slack rope device when provided and shall also act to stop the machines.

(3) The cars of all elevators having speed governors the normal car speed of which does not exceed 100 feet per minute shall be loaded to maximum carrying capacity run to the top landing and started down at normal speed. At this speed the governor shall be manually operated to test the action of the car safety, the slack rope device when provided and to stop the machine.

(4) The cars of all elevators not equipped with speed governors shall be tested by slacking the hoisting cables to test the action of the car safeties, the slack rope device when provided and to stop the machine.

(5) Safe lift loads on safe lift elevators are not required to be tested as above provided.

(6) Phase reverse relays, car emergency switches and hand rope locks shall be tested to insure their effectiveness.

(7) The hoistway doors or gates, elevator equipment and machinery shall be examined to determine if the installation conforms to the requirements of the law and this Part (rule).

(b) Certificate of approval. If the elevator satisfactorily passes such tests and the inspection required by the provisions of paragraphs (1) to (7) of subdivision (a), the Industrial Commissioner shall issue a certificate to that effect, which shall bear the date of issue and the same shall be posted in a conspicuous place in the car.
(c) If a representative of the Department of Labor cannot be present at the tests within five days after receipt by the Industrial Commissioner of notice of completion of an installation, the commissioner shall immediately so notify the sender of such notice, who shall then make such tests. Upon receipt of a report certified to by the person or firm making such installation that the tests have been made in accordance with the requirements of this section, the commissioner may issue a certificate to that effect if the elevator passed such tests satisfactorily.
(d) Where the hoistway and elevator are constructed under separate contracts, the Industrial Commissioner will on the request give to each contractor the results of the inspection or test of the work done by the contractor.

§ 8-1.12 Responsibility of owner and tenant.

(a) Responsibility.
(1) The owner shall be responsible for the observance and punishable for the nonobservance of the following sections, anything in any lease to the contrary notwithstanding, namely: 8-1.2, 8-1.3, 8-1.4, 8-1.6 (subd. [a]), 8-1.7, 8-1.8, 8-1.10, 8-1.11, 8-1.13, 8-1.14, 8-1.15, 8-1.16, 8-1.17, 8-1.18, 8-1.19, 8-1.20, 8-1.21, 8-1.22, 8-1.23, 8-1.24, 8-1.26, 8-1.27, 8-1.28, 8-1.29, 8-1.30, 8-1.31, 8-1.32, 8-1.33, 8-1.34, 8-1.35, 8-1.36, 8-1.37, 8-1.38, 8-1.39, 8-1.40, 8-1.41, 8-1.42 (subd. [a], par. [1]; subd. [b]), 8-1.43, 8-1.44, 8-1.45, 8-1.48, 8-1.49, 8-1.50, 8-1.51, 8-1.52 (subd. [b]), 8-1.53, 8-1.55, 8-1.56, 8-1.57, 8-1.58, 8-1.59, 8-1.60, 8-1.61, 8-1.62.

(2) Both the owner and the tenant shall be responsible for the observance and punishable for the nonobservance of the following sections, anything in any lease to the contrary notwithstanding, namely: 8-1.5, 8-1.6 (subd. [b]), 8-1.9, 8-1.25, 8-1.42 (subd. [a], pars. [2], [3]), 8-1.46, 8-1.47, 8-1.52 (subds. [a], [c], [d]), 8-1.54.

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT HOISTWAYS

§ 8-1.13 Enclosures.

In factory buildings erected before October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before November 1, 1920.
(a) The sides of all hoistways where there are no landings shall have enclosures extending from the floor not less than 72 inches in height.
(See §8-1.14.)
(b) The landing sides of all hoistways shall have enclosures extending from the floor to the ceiling. (See §8-1.14.)
Exceptions:
(1) Existing freight elevator hoistways.
(2) Existing freight elevator hoistways provided with trap doors.

(c) All elevator hoistway enclosures shall be provided with doors or gates.


§ 8-1.14 Construction.

In factory buildings erected before October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before November 1, 1920.
(a) Enclosures shall be by means of walls, mesh work, grille work, or slatted partitions, set flush with all floor openings at landing sides, except that landing gates of an approved type may be operated inside of hoistway, in which case the projecting saddle or sill, if more than one inch, shall be guarded as required in section 8-1.17.

(b) Wire mesh when used shall be not less than No. 10 U. S. gauge; expanded metal when used shall be not less than No. 13 U. S. gauge; the openings shall not exceed one and one-half inches.

(c) When grille work is used there shall be not more than one and one-half inches space between any two members, except where plain straight bars are used not filled in with scroll, there shall be not more than one inch space between members.

(d) Wood slats shall be not less than three-eights inch thick, spaced not more than one inch between slats.

(e) All of the above shall be properly braced and securely fastened.

§ 8-1.15 Trap door freight hoistways.

In factory buildings erected before October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before November 1, 1920.
(a) Existing hoistways for freight elevators provided with trap doors capable of sustaining a load of not less than 50 pounds per square foot, when closed and so arranged as to open and close with the passage of the car, will be accepted in lieu of the enclosure required in section 8-1.13, provided that in addition to such trap doors the hoistway shall be adequately protected on all sides, all floors, with a standard railing as specified in section 8-1.54, or enclosure at least 42 inches high, placed 12 inches from the hoistway line on all sides. Self-closing gates not less than 42 inches high shall be provided at all landings. Where enclosures are not less than 72 inches high and gates not less than 66 inches high they may be set less than 12 inches from the hoistway line.

(b) Where self-closing gates are provided, the lowest horizontal member shall be 10 inches or less from the floor.

(c) In existing installations a hinged bar 42 inches high will be accepted in lieu of the gates herein required, if upon inspection such bar is found to be self-closing and provides adequate protection.

(d) No car shall be permitted to remain in such position as to keep trap doors open except when at landings. Where height between floor necessitates trap doors being held partially open, the gates shall extend to floor level the full width of the floor opening.

(e) Automatic trap doors shall not be permitted in future installations at more than two landings.

§ 8-1.16 Hoistway enclosure and construction.

In factory buildings erected after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected after November 1, 1920.
All hoistways shall be enclosed throughout their height by enclosures of fireproof material. Every such enclosure shall be set flush with hoistway line on all landing sides and shall have a roof of fireproof material. If the enclosure extends to the top story, it shall be continued 36 inches above the roof, or to the roof if it is fireproof, and shall have at the top a metal frame skylight at least three quarters of the area of the shaft or an exterior window with metal frame and sash. The bottom of the enclosure shall be of fireproof material unless the partitions extend to the cellar bottom. All openings in such enclosures shall be provided with fire doors set substantially flush with the hoistway line. (See §8-1.62.)

§ 8-1.17 Projecting ledges and recesses.

In factory buildings erected before or after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before or after November 1, 1920.
(a) Projecting ledges. All ledges, floor beams, sills, saddles and timbers on landing sides that project more than one inch from the inside of the hoistway enclosure shall be fitted with smooth, beveled guards set directly under the projections. The slope of the guard shall be at least 60 degrees from the horizontal, and shall extend to a point where the bevel meets the vertical wall.
Exceptions:
(1) Sidewalk elevators.
(2) Where cars are provided with gates equipped with an interlock or electric contact.

(b) Recesses. Windows, recesses, or offsets in enclosure walls of hoistway on open sides of the car except door lintels shall be protected by curtain walls, grating or vertical bars, set flush with the hoistway line, the distance between members not to exceed two inches. Such grating or bars shall be of metal. No point of such curtain walls, grating or bars shall be more than three inches from the car platform on any open side of the car.
Exceptions:
(1) Sidewalk elevators.
(2) Where cars are provided with gates equipped with an interlock or electric contact.

(c) Car clearance-future installations.In installations hereafter made the clearance between the edge of the car platform and edge of any landing sill or the edge of any door when used as a landing sill shall be not greater than one and one-quarter inches and the minimum clearance shall be not less than three-quarters of an inch. In cases where an entrance is provided in exterior wall of building and such wall has offsets at various levels, this clearance shall be maintained between edge of car platform and the protection prescribed in subdivision (b) of this section.

§ 8-1.18 Overhead clearance.

In factory buildings erected before or after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before or after November 1, 1920.
(a) Existing installations. Existing elevator cars shall automatically stop level with the top landing when ascending with a full capacity load. When the car platform is level with the top landing in no case shall the distance between the car crosshead and overhead work be less than 18 inches for normal speed of 100 feet or less per minute; for each 50 feet increase in normal car speed the clearance shall be not less than six inches additional and 60 inches clearance between the top of the car crosshead and overhead work shall be the maximum space required.
Exception: Platform elevators and sidewalk elevators.


(b) Future installations. Hoistways hereafter constructed shall have sufficient clear space from the top of the elevator car when at the upper landing to permit of a run-by of not less than 24 inches for elevators having a speed not exceeding 100 feet per minute, not less than three feet for elevators having a speed exceeding 100 feet per minute and not exceeding 350 feet per minute, and not less than five feet for elevators having a speed exceeding 350 per minute. (For counterweight clearances, see §8-1.43[c].)

§ 8-1.19 Hoistway pits.

In factory buildings erected before or after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before or after November 1, 1920.
(a) For existing elevators, the hoistway pit shall have sufficient depth so the car may stop level with the landing at the lowest terminal when descending empty, and shall not strike the bottom of the pit or fully compress the buffer when descending with a full capacity load in the car. The stopping under each condition shall be made automatically.
Exception: Platform elevators and sidewalk elevators.


(b) In installations hereafter the pit depth shall be measured from the level of the lowest landing to the bottom of the pit and this distance shall be not less than 30 inches for car speeds not exceeding 75 feet; 36 inches for car speeds exceeding 75 feet and not more than 150 feet; 42 inches for car speeds exceeding 150 feet and not more than 400 feet; and not less than 60 inches for car speeds exceeding 400.

(c) In adjacent hoistways there shall be provided a vertical partition or screen separating the hoistways not less than 72 inches high from bottom of pit.

§ 8-1.20 Penthouses.

Elevator penthouses hereafter constructed shall conform to the following requirements, and in factory buildings erected after October 1, 1913, and in mercantile establishments in buildings erected after November 1, 1920, shall in addition thereto, be of fireproof construction:
(a) A minimum head room of six feet shall be provided.

(b) Entrance to penthouse shall be kept locked except when used as a required means of exit.

(c) Penthouses shall be provided with adequate artificial light; the lighting switch shall be within easy reach at the entrance.

(d) A safe and convenient means of access shall be provided to all penthouses. When entrance is more than four feet above floor or roof, an iron ladder or stairs, the angle of which shall not exceed 60 degrees from the horizontal, shall be provided. The ladder or stairs and balcony shall have a hand rail not less than three feet, six inches in height. When entrance door opens outwardly, a platform not less than two feet square and not more than eight inches below door sill shall be provided.

(e) Where a penthouse is used as a means of access to the roof or as a required means of exit, the exposed sides of drums, sheaves and cables shall be guarded.

HOISTWAY DOORS AND GATES FOR PASSENGER AND FREIGHT INSTALLATION

§ 8-1.21 Operation.

In factory buildings erected before October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before November 1, 1920.
(a) Existing installations. Self-closing doors or gates that open or close with a swinging motion installed before November 1, 1920, may remain in place, if the hoistway entrance is provided with a vertical sliding, auxiliary gate, self-closing, not less than 66 inches high, constructed in accordance with section 8-1.22.

(b) Future installations.
(1) Hoistway doors or gates to elevator landings that open or close with a swinging motion shall be manually operated.

(2) All doors or gates used on hoistways shall be set substantially flush with the hoistway line.

(3) Horizontal sliding hoistway gates of the collapsible type will not be permitted.


(c) All installations.
(1) In existing and future installations doors or gates at landings shall be manually operated, self-closing or power driven.

Exception: Full automatic doors or gates will be permitted at the terminal landings for freight elevators operating at a speed not exceeding 75 feet per minute and at all landings of freight elevators used exclusively for automobiles.

(2) All manually operated hoistway doors or gates shall be provided with an interlock or electric contact as specified in sections 8-1.55 and 8-1.56, or other approved device performing similar functions.
Exception: (1) Where freight hoistways provided with sliding doors or gates are equipped with operating or controlling devices that are not designed to coordinate with approved interlocks or electric contacts so as to provide safe conditions, or where, because of hoistway or elevator structural conditions, there are difficulties in effecting installations for the reliable operation of such devices, the Industrial Commissioner may permit in lieu thereof such other safeguards or conditions as will in his opinion provide reasonable safety. (2) Sliding doors or gates on hydraulic passenger elevators, equipped with a self-closing device which is not actuated by the movement of the car.


(3) Where electric contacts are installed, they shall be located so as to insure the door or gate being locked or latched when or before the contact is closed.

(4) All manually operated and all self-closing hoistway doors or gates shall be locked or latched when the car is not at the landing.
Exceptions: (1) Hoistway gates not more than 42 inches high. (2) Full automatic gates.


(5) Hoistway doors or gates shall not be openable from the floor side except by the use of a key.
Exception: When the car is at the landing and the doors or gates are unlocked by the action of the car.


(6) It shall be optional with the owner or tenant of the building to arrange the hoistway doors or gates on any and all floors so they may be unlocked from the floor side by means of a key. To insure against the unauthorized use of a key, each tenant shall be responsible for the care and use of the hoistway door key or keys and he shall post and maintain a notice adjacent to each single elevator hoistway door or of each battery of elevators that will indicate how the key shall be available.

(7) The bottom landing hoistway door or gate of every elevator shall be openable from the outside by means of a key. In addition to the keys kept by the tenants, there shall be an emergency key which shall be kept in a glass covered box adjacent to such landing which shall be immediately returned when the emergency ceases.

(8) Power driven doors or gates shall be so arranged that they cannot be opened from the floor side except by use of an emergency key or other approved means.

(9) Self-closing doors that open or close with a swinging motion installed before November 1, 1920, may remain in place if the hoistway entrance is provided with a vertical sliding, self-closing, auxiliary gate, not less than 66 inches high, and conforming to the provisions of section 8-1.22.

(10) Where it is possible to unlock any gate by reaching the lock or latch from the floor side, such lock or latch shall be covered with an approved guard.


§ 8-1.22 Construction.

In factory buildings erected before October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before November 1, 1920.
(a) Existing installations.
(1) Existing hoistway gates located less than 12 inches from the inside edge of the sill shall be not less than 66 inches in height, and shall extend to within 10 inches of the floor level across their entire width.

(2) Existing hoistway gates located 12 inches or more from the inside edge of the sill shall be not less than 42 inches in height; the clearance between the bottom of the gate and the floor shall be not more than 10 inches and telltale chains 48 inches long spaced six inches on centers suspended not more than two inches back from the edge of the car platform shall be provided across the entire width of the openings. Broken links of chain shall be immediately replaced.
Exception: Telltale chains will not be required for trap door freight elevators.



(b) Future installations.
(1) The doors at entrances to hoistways hereafter constructed shall be not less than 78 inches in height and so constructed that when open their opening will have a width not in excess of the opening of the elevator car platform.

(2) The gates at entrances to hoistways hereafter constructed shall be not less than 66 inches in height, set flush with the hoistway and shall extend to the floor level across their entire width.


(c) All installations.
(1) Where entrance to hoistway is on the street or outside of building at ground floor, the gate shall be not less than 66 inches in height and shall extend to the floor level across its entire width.

(2) The cross bars of enclosure gates shall be sufficiently strong to resist 150 pounds pressure at the middle of the span without permanent deformation to the gate or its fastenings.

(3) When made of vertical or horizontal slats or strips the space between members shall be not more than two inches.

(4) When made of wire mesh, the mesh shall be of such dimensions to reject a two-inch diameter ball and not less than No. 10 U. S. gauge set in metal frames.

(5) All gates shall operate in substantial guides of wood or metal and be so guided that the shoe on the gate will have a lap of at least one inch on the guides.

(6) All gates shall be properly balanced and hung with fibre rope not less than three-eights inch in diameter, or wire rope not less than one-fourth inch in diameter or chains of equivalent strength.

(7) Gate or door counterweights shall be guarded on all exposed sides and shall run in guides from which they cannot be accidentally dislodged. The bottom of the guides shall be of such construction that the counterweights will be securely held if the counterweight ropes should break.


§ 8-1.23 Operation.

In factory buildings erected after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected after November 1, 1920.
(a) All openings in hoistway enclosures shall be provided with fire doors.

(b) All doors used on hoistways hereafter constructed shall be set substantially flush with the hoistway line.

(c) Sliding hoistway doors at landings of elevator hoistways shall be manually operated, self-closing or power driven.

(d) Hoistway doors at elevator landings that open and close with a swinging motion shall be manually operated.

(e) All manually operated hoistway doors shall be provided with an interlock or electric contact conforming to the specifications of sections 8-1.55 and 8-1.56 or other approved devices performing similar functions.
Exception: Sliding doors on hydraulic passenger elevators equipped with a self-closing device which is not actuated by the movement of the car.


(f) All manually operated and self-closing hoistway doors shall be locked or latched when the car is not at the landing.
Exception: Full automatic doors shall not be required to be locked or latched.


(g) Where electric contacts are installed they shall be located so as to insure the door being locked or latched when or before the contact is closed.

(h) Power driven doors shall be so arranged that they cannot be opened from the floor side except by the use of an emergency key or by other approved means.

(i) Hoistway doors shall not be openable from the floor side except by the use of a key.
Exception: When car is at the landing and doors are unlocked by the action of the car.


(j) It shall be optional with the owner or tenant of the building to arrange the hoistway doors on any or all floors so they may be unlocked from the floor side by means of a key. To insure against the unauthorized use of a key or keys each tenant shall be responsible for the care and use of the hoistway door key or keys and he shall post and maintain a notice adjacent to each single elevator hoistway door or of each battery of elevators that will indicate how the key shall be available.

(k) The bottom landing hoistway door of every elevator shall be openable from the outside by means of a key. In addition to the keys kept by the tenants, there shall be an emergency key which shall be kept in a glass covered box adjacent to such landing which shall be immediately returned to the box and the glass replaced when the emergency ceases.

§ 8-1.24 Construction of doors.

In factory buildings erected after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected after November 1, 1920.
Construction of hoistway doors shall conform to the specifications provided in section 8-1.62.

§ 8-1.25 Landings.

In factory buildings erected before or after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before or after November 1, 1920.
(a) All entrances to the hoistway shall be properly lighted while the elevator cars are in service.

(b) The minimum intensity of such illumination shall not fall below 0.50 foot candle at the floor level.
Exception: 0.50 foot candle is approximately that given by a 25 watt frosted lamp placed seven feet from the landing edge of the car platform or of a 40 watt frosted lamp placed nine feet from such landing edge.


(c) In future installations of passenger elevators, the landings for a distance of not less than 18 inches from the hoistway line and across the entire width of the openings shall be constructed and maintained so as to prevent persons from slipping thereon.

(d) Floor tracks for doors or gates in future installations shall not project above the finished floor surface.

§ 8-1.26 Thoroughfares under elevators.

In factory buildings erected before or after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before or after November 1, 1920.
There shall be no thoroughfare, occupied or unoccupied space under the hoistway of any elevator, dumbwaiter or counterweight, unless all of the following conditions exist:
(a) Elevator car and counterweight shall be provided with bumpers or buffers capable of stopping the car when descending at governor tripping speed with rated load.

(b) The car shall be provided with a safety device conforming to the requirements for such device. The counterweights shall be provided with safety device conforming to the requirements for such device, or a safety device which functions if the rope breaks. Provided also that when the lock type of counterweight safety is employed, the governor which operates the car safety must be arranged to bring the elevator machine to a stop when the counterweight reaches a speed corresponding to the car governor tripping speed.

(c) There shall be a floor under the hoistway sufficiently strong to withstand without injury the impact of the car or counterweight descending at governor tripping speed with rated load.

§ 8-1.27 Flooring.

In factory buildings erected before or after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before or after November 1, 1920.
(a) At the top of hoistways immediately below the machine or sheaves or at the machine beams, a flooring of iron, steel, concrete or wood capable of sustaining a concentrated load of 300 pounds, shall be provided.
Exceptions: (1) Hoistways protected at each floor by automatic trap doors. (2) Sidewalk elevators outside of building line. (3) Dumbwaiters.


(b) If metal grating is used, the spacing between members shall not exceed one and one-quarter inches.

(c) If grating members are laid flat, they shall be supported by battens spaced not more than 48 inches apart.

(d) If grating members are placed on edge, thimbles strung on metal rods running through the members shall be provided; the rods shall be riveted at the ends and spaced not more than 48 inches apart.

(e) Wood platforms shall be not less than three inches in thickness where hoistways are required to be of fireproof construction. If the platform is made of two or more layers, and any layer is less than three inches in thickness, the layer shall be securely spiked or bolted together.

(f) The grating or flooring must fill the entire hoistway if the horizontal area is 50 square feet or less, otherwise the same shall extend not less than 24 inches beyond the general contour of the sheaves or machine, and to the entrance to the hoistway at or above the level of the flooring.

(g) When the grating or flooring does not entirely cover the horizontal area of the hoistway, the open or exposed sides shall be provided with a standard railing as specified by section 8-1.54 and a toeboard.

§ 8-1.28 Machinery.

In factory buildings erected before or after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before or after November 1, 1920.
(a) The elevator machinery and sheaves shall have an ample factor of safety for the rated elevator capacity and shall be installed in a substantial manner.

(b) Belted, chain driven elevators and spur gear machines.
(1) In future installations single belted or chain driven elevators shall not be permitted.

(2) In future installations double belted driven elevators shall be permitted only when the drive is from a line shafting, which also supplies power for other purposes and where the car speed does not exceed 60 feet per minute.

(3) In future installations spur gear machines shall not be permitted.
Exceptions: (1) Machines that have an intervening worm and gear between the spur gear and brake. (2) Spur gears may be installed on worm gearing machines between the motor and brakes. (For sheaves and drum diameters see subdivision [i] of section 8-1.45.)



§ 8-1.29 Machine guards.

(a) In existing installations the machinery for operating elevators, when not installed in a penthouse, engine room or motor room, shall be guarded by an approved guard or standard railing as specified in section 8-1.54, set not less than 12 nor more than 20 inches from any moving part. Such enclosures shall be properly lighted. When the machine is located at the bottom of the hoistway it shall be protected with a substantial pit pan.
(b) In future installations the enclosure shall be of solid or open work not less than six feet high, and the entrances thereto protected by a door provided with a lock.
Exception: This section shall not apply to machines hung or mounted on ceiling.

Note: For counterweight guards see subdivision (b) of section 8-1.43.

§ 8-1.30 Machine brakes.

In factory buildings erected before or after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before or after November 1, 1920.
Every direct connected electric elevator hereafter installed shall be equipped with an electro-mechanical machine brake, which shall be electrically released and mechanically applied and which shall bring the car to a stop when any of the electric attachments function for safety or when the operating device is brought to the stop position.

CAR AND SAFETY OPERATING DEVICES AND EQUIPMENT

§ 8-1.31 Car operating device.

(a) In elevators hereafter installed all electric car switch operating devices shall be self-centering and self-locking in the inoperative position. Car switches, whose operating devices will move to the "on" position due to the possible failure of the self-centering mechanism shall not be permitted. Every electric elevator operated by hand ropes, lever, wheel or other non-self-centering devices, shall be provided with a device which will prevent the operation of the car, after the interruption of the current, until the operating device has been first returned to the inoperative position. (See also §§8-1.35, 8-1.41 [e][1].)
(b) In future installations hand rope controlled elevators will not be permitted for a speed in excess of 100 feet per minute.
(c) In future installations revolving lever or wheel control will not be permitted for a speed in excess of 150 feet per minute.
(d) In future installations vertical shifting rods shall not be permitted.
(e) Every elevator hereafter installed and operated by polyphase alternating current shall be equipped with a reverse phase relay of the shunt type. (See also §8-1.11 [a][6].)
(f) In all freight elevator installations where no regular operator is employed the return hand rope may be installed outside of the hoistway wall provided the hoistway doors or gates are equipped with interlocks or electric contacts and there is a hand rope lock on the car. Where such return hand rope passes through the floors it shall be guarded to a height of not less than three feet from the floor on the exposed sides.

§ 8-1.32 Terminal stopping devices and limit stops.

(a) All elevators shall have limit devices arranged to automatically stop the elevator car at the terminals of travel and installed as follows:
(1) Electric winding drum type elevators; on machine and in hoistway.

(2) Electric winding drum type sidewalk elevators; on machine and in hoistway or on operating device.

(3) Electric traction type passenger and freight elevators; on car or in hoistway.

(4) Double belt winding drum freight elevators; on machine and on operating device.

(5) Existing double belt, single belt or chain driven elevators; shall have at least a stopping device on the operating rope.

(6) Double belt traction type freight elevators; on operating device

(7) Hydraulic and plunger hand rope operated type passenger and freight elevators with speeds not exceeding 150 feet per minute; on operating rope.

(8) Hydraulic and plunger elevators, passenger and freight, with speeds exceeding 150 feet per minute; on machine.

(9) Hydraulic and plunger passenger and freight elevators lever or crank operated; on machine.

(b) Chain, rope or belt driven operating devices will not be permitted for operating machine limit stopping devices on electric winding drum type passenger, freight and sidewalk elevators on new installations.
(c) Machine and hoistway limit devices on electric winding drum passenger, freight, and sidewalk elevators shall act on two independent means for stopping the elevator.
(d) If one or more speeds than full speed are used, the terminal stopping devices shall be arranged to slow down the elevator at the terminals before stopping.
(e) All hand rope operated elevators shall have stop balls on the rope arranged to center the operating device at the terminals of travel.

§ 8-1.33 Slack cable stopping device.

All elevators using a winding drum shall be provided with a slack cable device which will automatically cut off the power and stop the machine in case the hoisting cables or chains become slack.
Exception: (1) Existing belt or chain driven elevators. (2) Sidewalk elevators.

§ 8-1.34 Safety or governor switch.

All elevators using a traction type machine shall be provided with a switch on the safety or governor, which will stop the machine when the safety applies.
Exception: Existing installations with mechanical brakes.

§ 8-1.35 Car emergency switch.

Every direct connected electric elevator hereafter installed shall have mounted in the car adjacent to the controller an emergency switch, the function of which shall be to cut off the power, apply the brake and bring the car to rest, independent of the car operating device.
Exception: Sidewalk elevators and trap door freight elevators.

§ 8-1.36 Hand rope cable lock.

An approved locking device shall be provided for all hand rope controlled freight elevators that will hold the hand rope in the stop position while the car is standing at a landing.
Exception: When the hoistway doors or gates are provided with interlocks or electric contacts, and hand rope is wholly within the hoistway.

SAFETY EQUIPMENT

§ 8-1.37 Car safeties.

(a) All elevators shall have a safety device of an approved type that will grip the guide rails with a gradually increasing pressure and retard and hold the car with its full load whenever the safeties are applied, or in a distance not greater than nine feet at a speed of 700 feet per minute, except that elevators having a speed of 100 feet per minute or less, safeties of the instantaneous type may be used.
Exceptions: (1) Hydraulic plunger type evelators. (2) Platform elevators. (3) Sidewalk elevators with a rise of note over 20 feet.

(b) Safety device shall be attached to the car frame beneath the car platform.
(c) In installations made prior to April 15, 1915, crosshead safeties may be accepted after inspection and approval by the commissioner.

§ 8-1.38 Speed governors.

(a) All elevators, the travel of which is more than 25 feet and on which safeties are required by section 8-1.37 shall be equipped with a speed governor located at the top of the hoistway, whose action will trip and apply the safeties whenever the car attains a downward speed of 40 percent in excess of the normal car speed, except that in no case shall the governor be set to trip the safety at a speed in excess of 850 feet per minute, nor shall it be required to trip the safety at less than 150 feet per minute.
Exceptions: (1) Existing installations where the distance from the pit bottom to the upper terminal of travel does not exceed 50 feet. (2) All installations where hoistways are protected by automatic trap doors conforming to section 8-1.15.

(b) All such governors shall have plainly stamped thereon the car speed at which it is set to trip.
(c) All elevators on which safeties are required by section 8-1.37 and on which governors are not required (subdivision [a] of this section) shall be equipped with a device that will immediately stop the car with a full load if the ropes break.

GUIDE RAILS

§ 8-1.39 General.

(a) In future installations, guide rails for both car and counterweight of all elevators shall be of steel.
Exceptions: Wood guide rails shall be permitted where none of the following conditions are exceeded: (1) Passenger elevators with a capacity not exceeding 2,000 pounds. (2) Freight elevators with a capacity not exceeding 5,000 pounds. (3) Elevators with a rise not exceeding 75 feet. (4) Elevators with a speed not exceeding 100 feet per minute.

(b) Cast iron shall not be used for guide rails.
(c) Steel guide rails and posts for maple guide rails shall be securely fastened with iron or steel brackets or their equivalent, of such strength, design and spacing that the guide rails shall not reflect more than one-fourth inch under normal operation; they shall withstand the application of the safety when stopping a fully loaded car or the counterweight. The guiding surface of the guide rails for elevators requiring safeties shall be finished smooth and joints shall be tongued and grooved or dowelled.
(d) The guide rails shall extend to the level of or above the overhead beams and shall rest on suitable supports. (See section 8-1.53 for table of weights and sizes.)

CARS

§ 8-1.40 Passenger elevators.

(a) Enclosure and construction.
(1) All passenger elevator cars shall be fully and substantially enclosed on all sides including the top, except the landing side. In future installations the car frame shall be of wrought iron or steel.

(2) The enclosure shall be of wood or metal and must be of solid construction to a height of not less than 48 inches above the car floor. Above the solid panel and extending to the top frame of the car, open work may be used provided the spacing between the members does not exceed one inch. That portion of the car enclosure to its full height where the counterweights pass, shall be of solid construction or of wire mesh or expanded metal not less than No. 18 U. S. gauge which will reject a three-eighths inch diameter ball.

(3) When wood is used the enclosure shall not be less than seven-eighths inch in thickness.

(4) The enclosure of the top of the car shall be sufficiently strong to sustain a concentrated load of 150 pounds.

(5) The enclosure of the top of the car shall be provided with an emergency trap door not less than 18 inches in its smallest dimensions, and not less than 400 square inches in area.

(6) Where two or more cars are in the same hoistway emergency doors may be provided in the side of each car in lieu of trap doors to afford easy egress from one car to another, the size of which shall be not less than 18 inches in width and 60 inches high measured from a point not higher than six inches from the floor.

(b) Car openings.
(1) Passenger elevator cars hereafter installed shall have doors or gates on all landing sides that shall be kept closed while the car is in motion.

(2) Such doors or gates except the one immediately accessible to the operator shall be provided with an interlock or electric contact conforming to the specifications of sections 8-1.55 and 8-1.56, or other approved device performing similar functions.

(3) The distance from the car operating device to the handle on the car door or gate immediately accessible to the operator, also the locks and their extensions on all the hoistway doors or gates at the same entrance shall not exceed 48 inches.

(4) Elevator cars hereafter installed shall have not more than two openings.

(5) Floor tracks for doors or gates shall not project above the finished floor surface.

(6) Cars hereafter installed shall consist of not more than one compartment horizontally or vertically.

(c) Carrying capacity.
(1) The carrying capacity of elevators hereafter installed shall be not less than 75 pounds for each square foot of floor area inside of car.

(2) No elevator shall be used for carrying safes or other material of a greater weight than the normal lifting power of such elevator unless the car is equipped with a locking device which will hold the car from descending at any landing independent of the hoisting ropes while the safe or other material is being loaded or unloaded.

§ 8-1.41 Freight elevators.

(a) Enclosure. The cars of all elevators shall be enclosed on all sides except landing sides to a height of not less than 66 inches or to the crosshead where it is less than 66 inches in height.
(b) Construction.
(1) The enclosure shall be of wood or metal, solid or open work; if of open work, the spacing between parallel members shall be not more than one inch. In future installations the enclosure shall be solid.

(2) When wood is used the enclosure shall be not less than seven-eighths inch in thickness.

(3) Where the operating device is a hand rope and so located as to necessitate a slot in the car enclosure such slot shall be not more than 10 inches wide and not less than 24 inches from the floor.

(4) Floor tracks in future installations shall not project above the finished floor surface.

(c) Car covers.
(1) The top of elevator cars shall be provided with a substantially constructed cover or grating made of not less than No. 9 U.S. gauge wire or its equivalent in strength and of a mesh that will reject a one and one-half inch diameter ball.
Exception: Covers will not be required on top of cars where automatic hoistway trap doors are provided.


(2) Sections of the cover or grating may be arranged to swing upwards for handling long material, but such cover or grating shall be closed at all other times.

(3) In existing installations the part of such cover which faces the entrance to the hoistway shall be cut back eight inches from the edge of the landing threshold the full width of the car or shall be constructed with a self-closing hinged section not less than eight inches or more than 12 inches in depth.

(4) In installations hereafter, the part of such cover which faces the entrance to the hoistway shall be constructed with a self-closing hinged section 18 inches in depth, the full width of the car so arranged that it will rise when it meets any obstruction as the car descends. The front edge of such hinged section shall be flush with the front edge of the car platform.
Exception: Hoistways provided with doors equipped with interlocks or electric contacts.


(d) Carrying capacity.
(1) The carrying capacity of freight elevators hereafter installed shall be not less than 50 pounds per square foot of floor area inside of car, except where floor areas exceed 100 square feet when a capacity of not less than 25 pounds per square foot for the additional area will be permitted.

(2) No elevator shall be used for carrying safes or other material of a greater weight than the normal lifting power of such elevator, unless the car is equipped with a locking device which will hold the car from descending at any landing independent of the hoistway ropes, while the safe or other material is being loaded or unloaded.

(e) Operating and locking devices.
(1) The car operating device shall be placed near one of the main loading sides. (See also §§8-1.31 [a], 8-1.40 [b] [3].)

(2) A locking device shall be provided for hand rope controlled freight elevators that will hold the hand rope in the stop position while the car is being loaded or unloaded.
Exception: When the hoistway doors or gates are provided with interlocks or electric contacts conforming to sections 8-1.55, 8-1.56.


§ 8-1.42 Passenger and freight elevators.

(a) Lighting.
(1) All elevator cars shall be properly lighted while in service.
Exceptions: (1) Automatic trap door elevators. (2) Sidewalk elevators. (3) Platform elevators.


(2) All entrances to the hoistway shall be properly lighted while the cars are in service.

(3) The intensity of illumination as required by paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subdivision shall not fall below 0.50 foot candle power at floor level. (See "note" to §8-1.25 [b].)

(b) Signal.All elevators shall be provided with a bell or buzzer in the hoistway or in the car suitable for the service and operated from each landing, and on freight elevators where no regular operator is employed, such bell or buzzer shall be used as a warning before moving the elevator.
Exceptions: (1) Sidewalk elevators. (2) Where there are two or more passenger elevators making trips continuously and stopping at all floors during business hours, not less than one such elevator used for service after business hours shall have an annunciator and floor push buttons.

COUNTERWEIGHTS

§ 8-1.43 Construction.

(a) Tie rods.
(1) In future installations, all counterweights shall have their sections strongly secured together with tie rods passing through all the subweights and at least one portion of the frame work or guide weights.

(2) The tie rods shall have locknuts at each end secured by cotter pins.

(b) Guards.
(1) Counterweights at the bottom of the counterweight run shall be guarded on their exposed sides with substantial metal shields made of not less than No. 16 U.S. standard gauge iron or steel plates, except where compensating chains are attached to the bottom of counterweights, shields shall not be permitted. The height from the bottom of the pit to the top of the shields shall be not less than 66 inches and the shields shall extend to within 18 inches of the bottom of the pit. Where the counterweight can be guarded on one side only, four telltale chains not less than 48 inches long shall be suspended from the bottom of the counterweight. Compensating ropes or chains attached to the counterweights will be accepted in lieu of telltale chains.

(2) Where winding drum machines are used, there shall be a permanent substantial beam or bar at the top of the counterweight guides and beneath the counterweight sheaves to prevent the counterweights from being drawn out of their guides.

(3) Counterweights that pass through the floors outside of the hoistway shall be guarded throughout their entire travel.

(c) Clearances.
(1) In installation hereafter the clearance space between the top of the counterweight and the overhead beams when the car completely compresses the pit buffers, shall be not less than 24 inches for traction and plunger type elevators for car speeds up to 350 feet and not less than 36 inches for cars with speeds exceeding 350 feet.

(2) For drum type elevators the minimum clearance from the top of counterweight shall be 36 inches and for car speeds over 350 feet per minute the clearance shall be not less than 48 inches.

(3) For hoistway and car clearances see sections 8-1.17 and 8-1.18.

§ 8-1.44 Car and counterweight bumpers and buffers.

(a) All power driven elevators hereafter installed for speeds less than 350 feet per minute shall have provided for the car and counterweight suitable buffer springs or their equivalent.
(b) All power driven elevators hereafter installed for speeds of 350 feet per minute and over shall have provided for the car and counterweights substantial oil buffers.
(c) The function of bumpers or buffers shall be to absorb all of the energy of the fully loaded car and counterweight when descending at the governing tripping speed.
Exception: Bumpers or buffers are not required for sidewalk elevators.

CABLES

§ 8-1.45 Hoist cables, sheave and drum diameters and cable safety factors.

(a) Winding drum elevators hereafter installed shall have not less than two hoisting cables and two cables attached to each counterweight. Traction elevators shall have not less than three cables for capacities not exceeding 1,200 pounds. For loads in excess of 1,200 pounds, not less than four cables shall be used.
(b) The hoist and counterweight cables and their fastenings for passenger and freight elevators hereafter installed shall have a safety factor of not less than that given in the following table.
Car speed in feet per minute Passenger Elevators Freight Elevators
  Drum Traction Drum Traction
0 to 100 7.5 9.5 6.5 8
101 to 250 8.5 10.5 7.5 9.5
251 to 400 9.5 11.75 8.5 10.5
401 to 650 10.5 13 9 11.25
Over 650 11 13.75 10 12.5
         
Exception: On sidewalk elevators the safety factors shall be not less than six.
(c) Safety factors shall be computed on the total weight suspended by the cables when the elevator is loaded to its full rated capacity.
(d) Hoisting cables shall be either high grade wrought iron or steel.
Exception: Chains may be used for sidewalk elevators.

(e) Cables shall be replaced when they become unsafe.
(f) The ends of all hoist cables shall be securely fastened and there shall be not less than one full turn on winding drums when the car or weights are at the limits of their travel.
(g) Where installations require that the hoist and counterweight cables pass through the floors outside of the elevator hoistway or enclosure the same shall be boxed in with a solid enclosure on all sides to a height of not less than seven feet.
(h) In future installations of all electric elevators located overhead, where right and left hand single drum grooving is provided, equalizers shall be used for fastening the hoisting and drum counterweight cables to the car and drum counterweight respectively.
(i) On all elevators hereafter installed the diameter of any sheave or drum over which the hoist or counterweight cables pass shall be not less than 40 times the diameter of such hoist or counterweight cables except that sheaves of a minimum diameter of 24 inches may be used for five-eighths inch cable.
Exception: Sidewalk elevators not included in sheave and drum diameter requirements.

PLATFORM ELEVATORS

§ 8-1.46 Carriage elevators. The installation hereafter of platform elevators as defined in these rules shall not be permitted. Existing platform elevators may be permitted for travel not to exceed 50 feet between terminal landings. Hoistways for such platform elevators shall be guarded in the same manner as hoistways and platforms for freight elevators. The sides of the platforms shall be enclosed in the same manner as required for freight elevator cars. No person shall be permitted to ride on such elevators, and signs to that effect shall be posted on the enclosure.

POWER DRIVEN SIDEWALK ELEVATORS

§ 8-1.47 Hoistways.

(a) The sides of existing or new hoistways, where there are no landings, shall have enclosures extending from the floor, not less than 72 inches high. Such enclosures shall conform to the specifications of section 8-1.14. A gate shall be provided at the lowest landing. Such gate shall conform to the specifications of section 8-1.22.
(b) In future installations where the platform of a sidewalk elevator travels above the walk, the platform shall have a sheet steel or wood guard that will protect the intervening space between the elevator platform and sidewalk.
(c) The cars of power driven sidewalk elevators hereafter installed shall be provided with a substantial metal bow not less than 72 inches high at center to open sidewalk doors, or with other approved means of automatically raising sidewalk doors; such doors shall be automatic self-closing.
(d) A warning bell or gong shall be provided at the street level for sidewalk elevators and arranged to ring when the elevator is ascending.
(e) In existing and future installations it shall not be permissible to use bars or other means to hold sidewalk doors open when the car is not at street level, unless the top and open ends are protected by a guard of wire mesh or slat construction.
(f) Guide rails. In future installations, guide rails for both car and counterweight of sidewalk elevators shall be of steel. (See §8-1.39.) (Sidewalk elevators located inside of building line shall be installed in accordance with freight elevator requirements.)
(g) Machinery. The elevator machinery and sheaves shall have an ample factor of safety for the rated elevator capacity and shall be installed in a substantial manner.
(h) Hoisting chains or ropes may be used for sidewalk elevators, but the sheaves or drums for the cables on power driven elevators of this type shall be not less than 10 inches in diameter, and the factor of safety for hoist chains and cables and their fastenings shall be not less than six.

POWER DRIVEN DUMBWAITERS

§ 8-1.48 Hoistway.

In factory buildings erected before October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before November 1, 1920.
(a) Enclosure.
(1) Hoistways shall be enclosed on all sides not used for landing to a height of not less than 72 inches from each floor.

(2) On loading sides the enclosure shall extend from floor to ceiling except that portion necessary for gates or doors.
Exceptions: (1) Existing enclosures on the loading sides not less than 72 inches high may remain as installed. (2) At the upper floor the hoistway enclosure may terminate level with the floor of the dumbwaiter when at its highest point of travel. The minimum height of the enclosure on all sides shall be 30 inches. Where the counterweight travels higher, the intervening space between the bottom of the counterweight and the hoistway enclosure shall be guarded.


(3) Hoistway enclosures shall be walls, mesh work, grille work or slatted partitions.
(i) Wire mesh shall be not less than No. 10 U. S. standard guage. Expanded metal shall be not less than No. 13 U. S. standard gauge. The openings shall not exceed one and one-half inches.

(ii) Grille work shall be not more than one and one-half inches space between any two members, except where plain straight bars are used not filled in with scroll there shall be not more than one inch space between bars.

(iii) Wood slats shall be not less than one and one-half inches wide by three-eighths inch thick spaced not more than one inch between slats.

(iv) All of the above shall be properly braced and securely fastened.



(b) Doors or gates.
(1) All openings in the hoistway enclosure shall be provided with doors or gates not greater than the width and height of car, except that one opening at the lowest terminal may have doors of such width and height necessary for the installation of a car.

(2) Hoistway doors or gates shall be self-closing or manually operated.

(3) Manually operated doors or gates in future installations shall be provided with an electric contact or an interlock or other approved device performing similar functions.

(4) Existing manually operated doors or gates not equipped with interlocks, contacts or other approved devices performing similar functions, shall be provided with a lock or latch arranged so that it cannot be opened from the floor side without the use of a key in emergency.

(5) Self-closing doors or gates shall be provided with a lock or latch arranged so that it cannot be opened from the floor side without the use of a key in emergency.


In factory buildings erected after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected after November 1, 1920.
(c) Hoistways.The hoistway shall be enclosed in fireproof partitions conforming to the specifications of section 8-1.61.
(d) Doors or gates.
(1) All entrances to the hoistway shall be protected by fire doors conforming to the specifications of section 8-1.62.

(2) Doors shall be self-closing or manually operated.

(3) Manually operated doors or gates shall be provided with an electric contact or an interlock or other approved device performing similar functions.

(4) Self-closing doors or gates shall be provided with a lock or latch arranged so that it cannot be opened from the floor side without the use of a key in emergency.

(e) Machinery and hoist ropes.
(1) All dumbwaiter machinery and attachments shall be made sufficiently strong for the purpose intended and be properly installed and maintained.

(2) All dumbwaiters hereafter installed shall have magnetic brakes.

(3) The hoist cables and their fastenings shall have a safety factor of not less than six.

(f) Cars.
(1) In new installations the car shall be enclosed its full height on sides not used for loading or unloading.

(2) There shall be posted or painted on the front of each dumbwaiter car a capacity sign with letters and figures not less than one-half inch high, thus "Capacity . . . lbs."

AUTOMATIC PUSH BUTTON CONTROL ELEVATORS

§ 8-1.49 Hoistway.

(a) Enclosure. The hoistway shall be enclosed as specified in sections 8-1.13 and 8-1.14 for installations in factory buildings erected before October 1, 1913, and in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before November 1, 1920, and section 8-1.16 for installations in factory buildings erected after October 1, 1913, and in mercantile establishments in buildings erected after November 1, 1920.
(b) Door interlocks and keys. The hoistway door shall be equipped with hoistway unit interlocking device as described in section 8-1.55 to prevent the movement of the elevator car away from any landing when any hoistway door is open or unlocked. The emergency release described in section 8-1.57 will not be permitted. The hoistway doors shall be so arranged that they cannot be opened until the floor of the car is brought to rest within three inches of the designated landing, nor after the car leaves the landing, except in an emergency. Emergency keys shall be provided for unlocking at least one door from the outside.
(c) Machinery and cables.
(1) All machinery and attachments shall be made sufficiently strong for the purpose intended and be properly installed and maintained. All machines shall have magnetic brakes.

(2) There shall be not less than two car and counterweight cables. The cables and their fastenings shall have a factor of safety of not less than six.

(d) Car gate contact.
(1) The car openings shall be provided with gates equipped with an electric contact as described in section 8-1.56, or other approved devices performing similar functions to prevent the movement of the car away from the landing if any of the car gates are open.
Exceptions: (1) The car may be operated from the hall buttons with the car gate or gates open if the elevator is arranged so that it will not be operated under this condition with a passenger or passengers in the car. (2) Push button elevators used exclusively as freight elevators.


(e) Dual control. An automatic push button control elevator may be equipped with a dual control, viz: switch and push buttons. Such elevator equipment shall be made to comply with the requirements of this section except that the switchboards in the machine room shall be equipped with a throw over switch enabling the car to be operated either by push buttons on the landing and in the car or by a switch in the car only. The hoistway door interlocks and the car cam controlling the action of such interlocks shall be effective during either method of operation.

(f) Operation.
(1) Automatic push button control elevators hereafter installed shall be so designed and equipped that the car at its rated speed and load will automatically stop when the car floor is level with or not more than three inches above or below the designated landing floor.

(2) There shall be permanently posted in every car a plate of instructions of how to operate the car and open the hoistway doors.


(g) Signals. A signaling device shall be provided in the car for the purpose of notifying the persons in charge of the premises, in case the car becomes stopped in the hoistway from any cause.
Exception: Push button elevators used exclusively as freight elevators.


ESCALATORS

§ 8-1.50 General.

(a) Angle of inclination. The angle of inclination of an escalator shall not exceed 30 degrees with the horizontal. </>
(b) Width.
(1) The width of an escalator shall be measured between the balustrading at a vertical height of 24 inches above the nose line of the treads.

(2) Escalators shall be not less than 22 inches nor more than 48 inches wide.

(3) Escalators greater than 29 inches in width shall have a horizontal tread formation.


(c) Balustrading.
(1) Escalators shall be provided on each side with "solid balustrading". On the escalator side the "balustrading" shall be smooth, without depressed or raised paneling or molding. Glass panels in "balustrading" shall be prohibited.

(2) There shall be no abrupt changes in the width between the "balustrading" on the two sides of the escalator. Should any change in the width be necessary, the change shall be not more than eight per cent of the greatest width.

(3) In changing from the greater to the smaller width the change in the direction of the balustrading" shall not exceed 15 degrees from the line of the escalator travel.

(4) "Balustrading" shall be equipped with a handrail moving at the same speed and in the same direction as the travel of the escalator.


(d) Tread guards.
(1) Stationary tread guards shall be provided on the escalator side of the "balustrading" along the whole length of, and immediately above the nose line of the escalator treads.

(2) Escalator treads and landings shall be of material affording secure foothold, such as wood or material used for "safety treads". If the landing is of concrete, it shall have edge insertions of metal, wood or other anti-slip material.


(e) Strength of trusses or girders.
(1) Escalator trusses or girders shall be designed with a factor of safety not less than five based on the static loads.

(2) The escalator truss or girder shall be designed to safely retain the escalator treads in their runs if the tread chain breaks while supporting the maximum load.


(f) Track arrangement. The track arrangement for guiding the escalator tread shall prevent the displacement of the upper line of treads if the tread chain breaks.

(g) Capacity and loading.
(1) The maximum load permitted on an escalator 24 inches or less in width shall be computed by the following formula: Maximum load-110A.

(2) The maximum load permitted on an escalator wider than 24 inches but not exceeding 36 inches shall be computed by the following formula: Maximum load-110+5 (W-24) XA.

(3) The maximum load permitted on an escalator wider than 36 inches but not exceeding 48 inches shall be computed by the following formula: Maximum load-160+5 (W-36) XA.
Exception: In these formulas, W is the width of the escalator in inches and A is the horizontal projected length in feet of the exposed treads. The maximum load is expressed in pounds.



(h) Limits of speed. The speed of an escalator shall not exceed 100 feet per minute.

(i) Application of power.
(1) Escalators shall be driven by direct connected electric motors. Two or more escalators placed side by side and operated as a single unit may be driven by one motor.

(2) The chain or chains used for driving escalators shall have a factor of safety of not less than 10.

(3) Every escalator "drive" shall be provided with an electrically released, mechanically applied brake, which shall stop the escalator automatically when the power is cut off.

(4) There shall be an emergency "stop" button or other type of switch accessible to the public, conspicuously located at the top and the bottom of each escalator runway.

(5) The operation of either one of these buttons or switches shall cause the opening of the power circuit, application of the brake and stoppage of the escalator. It shall be impossible to start an escalator by means of these buttons or switches.

(6) These buttons or switches shall be marked "escalator stop button" or "escalator stop switch".

(7) Escalators operated in the ascending direction shall be equipped with a safety mechanism to prevent accidental reversal of the escalator.

(8) On a reversible escalator the safety mechanism shall be arranged to be inoperative when the escalator is descending and operative when the escalator is ascending. The safety mechanism shall be provided with a contractor, the functioning of which will cause the opening of the power circuit and the application of the brake.

(9) Escalators operating in a descending direction shall be provided with a safety mechanism to prevent the escalator attaining excessive speed.

(10) Escalators operated by polyphase alternating current motors shall be provided with relays of the potential type which will prevent starting the motor while:
(i) the phase rotation is in the wrong direction, or

(ii) there is a failure in any phase.



POWER DRIVEN HOISTS

§ 8-1.51 General.

In factory buildings erected before October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before November 1, 1920.
(a) Floor openings for hoistways used for raising or lowering freight by means of a sling or hook shall be enclosed on all sides by a standard railing with toe-board or vertical enclosure not less than 42 inches high, set not to exceed 12 inches from the hoistway line. (For specifications of standard railings, see §8-1.54.)

(b) Where trap doors are used, they shall be capable of sustaining a load of not less than 50 pounds per square foot when closed, and so arranged to be opened and closed without entering enclosures.

(c) Existing installations.
(1) In existing installations where it is necessary to maintain a passageway under a hoist, in a stairway, hallway or exit, there shall be provided at the lowest terminal, a substantial floor or bulkhead capable of sustaining a load of not less than 100 pounds per square foot, and so located to provide head room of not less than six feet, six inches from the floor to the passageway, or other suitable device approved by the Industrial Commissioner.

(2) That portion of the passageway directly under a hoist not located in a stairway, hallway or exit, shall be enclosed on all sides by a standard railing when hoist is in use.


(d) Future installations. In future installations no hoist shall be permitted to descend into a hallway, stairway or exit.

In factory buildings erected after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected after November 1, 1920.
(e) Hoistways used for raising or lowering freight by means of a sling or hook shall be enclosed throughout their height in fireproof partitions conforming to the specifications of section 8-1.61.
(f) All hoistway openings shall be protected by fire doors.
(g) The hoistway doors shall be self-closing or manually operated. All such doors shall be kept closed and locked except while used for loading or unloading.
(h) There shall be posted or painted on each hoistway door a capacity sign with letters and figures not less than one-half inch high, thus: "Capacity . . . lbs".

PROHIBITIONS AND PRECAUTIONS

§ 8-1.52 General.

(a) Riding on any material, hoist, or sliding down hoisting ropes or chains is prohibited. A notice to this effect shall be posted adjacent to the hoistway on each floor.
(b) Hoisting ropes and chains shall be of sufficient strength to sustain four times the load carried; defective hoisting equipment shall be removed and shall then be so damaged that it cannot be again used.
(c) Slings shall be carefully and symmetrically placed about loads, proper hitches being made, so there will be no opportunity for the load to slip or tip.
(d) No load, regardless of its weight, shall be allowed to descend at an excessive speed.
Exception: Wherever possible, the use of chains for hoisting purposes shall be avoided. Wire rope slings being preferable to chain slings, it is recommended that plow steel rope of six strands, 19 wires to the strand, with hemp core be used. Manila rope when used should consist of the best quality long fibre hemp, and should be used only for comparatively light loads.

SPECIFICATIONS

§ 8-1.53 Guide rails.

(a) The weight of steel or iron guide rails shall be not less than as given in the following table.
pdf icon Weight per lineal foot of each Guide Rail (opens in a new window)
(b) Where wood guides are permitted they shall be of straight grain kiln dried maple, securely fastened to the guide posts and the sectional area of each car guide rail shall be not less than five square inches with the minimum dimension not less than one and seven-eighths inches for a total weight of car and load of 6,000 pounds. For total weight in excess of 6,000 pounds, the guide rail shall have not less than seven square inches sectional area with the minimum dimension not less than two and one-half inches. The sectional area of each counterweight guide rail shall be not less than two and one-half inches with the minimum dimension not less than one and one-half inches. (See §8-1.39.)

§ 8-1.54 Standard railing.

(a) A standard railing shall be of wood or metal not less than three feet six inches high, with an additional rail approximately midway between the top rail and floor level.
(b) Metal railings shall be constructed of not less than one and one-quarter inch standard pipe, or angle iron not less than one and one-half inches by one and one-half inches by three-sixteenths inch, supported on uprights of at least equal dimensions, spaced not more than eight feet center to center.
(c) Wooden railings shall be of sound lumber, dressed on four sides and constructed as follows:
(1) Top railing shall be not less than two inches by four inches, or one inch by four inches, provided another board of not less than one inch by four inches is securely nailed to sides of posts and to top rail.

(2) Center railing shall be not less than one inch by four inches, supported on not less than two inch by four inch posts, spaced not more than eight feet center to center.
Exception: It is recommended that four-inch by four-inch posts be used. Dimensions given above are rough lumber sizes; dressed lumber will be one-eighth inch to three-eighths inch smaller, and will be accepted.


§ 8-1.55 Interlock. (See definition §8-1.1.)

(a) The functioning of an interlock to prevent the movement of the car shall not be dependent upon the closing of an electric circuit.
(b) Any force or forces used to perform any interlocking function shall be so arranged that their failure to cause the interlocking action will prevent the movement of the car. Interlocks employing springs, gravity or a combination of the two forces, may be used when approved by the Industrial Commissioner if the device is found to be safe, practical and reliable. These forces, however, are not considered desirable if they are arranged so that their failure would create an unsafe condition.
Exception: Helical tension springs are considered particularly undesirable.

(c) The force or forces used to perform any interlocking function to prevent the movement of the car shall be such that even without lubrication the intended functioning of the interlock shall be completely performed.
(d) Interlocks shall be so designed and installed as to prevent, as far as possible, being tampered with or intentionally rendered inoperative (except as noted in §8-1.57 covering emergency release). (See also §§8-1.6, 8-1.58, 8-1.59.)

§ 8-1.56 Electrical contact. (See definition §8-1.1)

(a) The functioning of an electric contact to prevent the movement of the car shall not be dependent upon the closing of an electric circuit.
(b) Electric contacts shall be designed so that they are directly opened by a lever or other device attached to and operated by the door or gate. Contacts employing springs, gravity or a combination of the two forces, may be used when approved by the Industrial Commissioner if the device is found to be safe and reliable. These forces, however, are not desirable if they are arranged so that their failure would create an unsafe condition.
Note: Helical springs are considered particularly undesirable.

(c) The force or forces employed to open the contact shall be such that even without lubrication of the mechanism the intended functioning of the electric contact shall be completely performed.
(d) Contacts shall be so designed and installed as to prevent, so far as possible, being tampered with or intentionally rendered inoperative (except as noted in §8-1.57 covering emergency release). (See also §§8-1.6, 8-1.58, 8-1.59.)

§ 8-1.57 Emergency release.

(a) The emergency release shall be in the car, plainly visible to the occupants of the car and reasonably, but not easily accessible to the operator.
(b) To operate the car under emergency conditions it shall be necessary for the operator to hold the emergency release in the emergency position. The emergency release shall be so constructed and installed that it cannot be readily tampered with or "plugged" in the emergency position or intentionally rendered inoperative.
(c) Rods, connections and wiring used in the operation of the emergency release, that are accessible from the car, shall be enclosed to prevent being tampered with readily.
Exception: These specifications cover the principal features with which interlocks, electric contacts and emergency releases shall comply before they will receive the approval of the Industrial Commissioner. The technical fulfillment of these requirements does not assure the approval of a device if examination and test disclose a lack of practicability, durability or reliability.

§ 8-1.58 Electric wiring.

(a) All conductors in the hoistway or on the car connected with interlocks or electric contacts shall be run in approved metallic rigid conduits terminating in drilled or tapped fittings rigidly secured and provided with approved terminal bushings. Conduits shall be not less than one-half inch internal diameter. All conduits shall be permanently and effectively grounded by the use of approved ground clamps. All conductors shall be rubber-covered and braided National Electric Code standard. Wiring in all systems shall be installed after the manner prescribed under National Electric Code rules as applying to conduit installation.
(b) All electric parts of interlocking equipment shall be governed by the following standards for breaking distances, voltage, etc.:
(1) Breaking distances shall be not less than three-eighths inch for 110 volts or less, not less than one-half inch for 220 volts or less, and not less than three-fourths inch for 440 to 550 volts or less.

(2) Contacts shall carry current of an intensity of not more than 100 amperes per square inch.

(3) Dielectric strength of insulating material shall not be less than one megohm, and the inside of all contact switch boxes where metal is used shall be thoroughly protected by a suitable noncombustible and non-absorptive insulation wherever it would be possible, through a loose connection to ground the system.

§ 8-1.59 Preliminary plans and specifications.

(a) Plans and specifications in duplicate covering a typical installation of any interlock or electric contact or other approved device and equipment shall be filed with the commissioner for examination and approval.
(b) Final approval. Every interlock or electric contact installation shall be subject to approval by the commissioner upon completion.

FIREPROOF MATERIALS

§ 8-1.60 Floors and roofs.

All floors and roofs shall be constructed of steel or reinforced concrete beams and girders filled in between with:
(a) segmental brick arches, having a rise of not less than one inch per foot of span, and a thickness of four inches and eight inches respectively, for spans less or greater than five feet;

(b) or hard-burned, semi-porous or porous terra cotta hollow tile arches, with shells not less than three-eighths inch thick and webs not less than five-eighths inch thick, and laid in Portland cement mortar, and having an effective depth of not less than one and one-half inches per foot of span in the case of flat arches, and a rise of not less than one inch per foot of span in the case of segmental arches. Segmental arches shall be not less than six inches in thickness; flat arches shall be not less than eight inches in thickness;

(c) or, reinforced stone concrete, consisting of one part Portland cement and not more than six parts of a properly proportioned aggregate consisting of sand and stone passing a one-inch ring, and not less than four inches thick in the case of floors, and not less than three and one-half inches thick in the case of roofs designed in accordance with the current regulations suggested in the report of the joint committee on concrete and reinforced concrete of the American Society of Civil Engineers, American Society for Testing Materials, American Railway Engineers' Association and the Association of American Portland Cement Manufacturers;

(d) or, any form of construction not less than four inches thick in the case of floors and not less than three and one-half inches thick in the case of roofs which shall have passed successfully a standard four-hour fire, load and water test.

§ 8-1.61 Fireproof partitions.

(a) Fireproof partitions, when specified by the provisions of the Labor Law, shall be built of:
(1) brick or concrete not less than eight inches in thickness for the uppermost 40 feet, increasing four inches in thickness for each additional lower 40 feet or part thereof; or when supported at vertical intervals of not over 40 feet, not less than eight inches in thickness throughout their entire height;

(2) or, terra cotta blocks as described in section 8-1.60 not less than six inches in thickness, supported at vertical intervals of not over 25 feet;

(3) or, reinforced stone concrete of the same mixture as required for floors and roofs described in section 8-1.60 not less than four inches in thickness, supported at vertical intervals of not over 25 feet;

(4) or, reinforced cinder concrete consisting of one part Portland cement and not more than seven parts of a properly proportioned aggregate of sand and cinders, not less than four inches in thickness, supported at vertical intervals of not over 18 feet;

(5) or, any form of construction, when safely supported, which shall have successfully passed a standard three-hour fire and water test.

(b) The supporting steel frame work of all partitions shall be properly encased on all sides with not less than two inches of fireproof material, securely fastened to the steel work. The reinforcement shall be protected by not less than three-fourths inch of fireproof material on each side. All fireproof partitions shall be properly braced at the floor levels through which they pass.

§ 8-1.62 Fire doors.

Fire doors, when specified by the provisions of the Labor Law and Industrial Code for elevator enclosures, are doors of any of the following materials and forms of construction:
(a) Tin clad. Three thicknesses of seven-eighths inch dressed, tongued and grooved white pine or other non-resinous wood board not more than eight inches wide, securely clinched with wrought-iron nails and covered with 14 inch by 20 inch sheets of terne plate of at least 1-C quality, joints locked full one-half inch and nailed under seams with at least 12 and one-half gauge flat head, full barbed-wire nails, two inches long.

(b) Plate iron. Wrought-iron or steel plates, at least three-sixteenths inch thick, having two inch by two inch by three-eighths inch angle iron stiles and rails, center rails and center stiles on one face, or three inch by one-quarter inch flat bar stiles and rails on both faces, no unstiffened panel shall be more than nine square feet in area; all parts shall be securely riveted with three-eighths inch iron rivets.

(c) Composite. A skeleton framework of at least one and one-half inch by one-quarter inch channels, angles or T's, covered on both sides with at least one-eighth inch wrought-iron or steel plates, filled solid with mineral fibre, asbestos, gypsum or other incombustible material.

(d) Other. Or, any form of door construction that shall have successfully passed a standard one-hour fire and water test and approved by the commissioner.

(e) Door counterweights. Door counterweights shall be guarded on all exposed sides and shall run in guides, from which they cannot be accidentally dislodged. The bottom of the guides shall be of such construction that the counterweights will be securely held if the counterweight ropes should break.

Subpart 8-2. HAND POWER
Definition of Terms

(a) Approved shall mean approved by the Industrial Commissioner.
(b) Existing installations shall mean installations made before March 1, 1923.
(c) Future installations; installations hereafter shall mean installations after March 1, 1923.
(d) Hand power elevator shall mean a raising and lowering mechanism equipped with a car or platform which moves in guides in a substantially vertical direction, operated by hand or gravity, the floor area of which exceeds nine square feet in a horizontal section and four feet in height.
(e) Hand power passenger elevator shall mean an elevator on which passengers or employees are permitted to ride.
(f) Hand power freight elevator shall mean an elevator operated by hand or gravity used for carrying freight on which only the operator and the employees necessary for loading and unloading shall be permitted to ride.
(g) Hand power platform elevator shall mean a freight elevator, the platform of which is suspended by chains or cables from its four corners and is without car crossheads and safeties.
(h Hand power sidewalk elevator shall mean a hand power elevator the travel of which is from a point below sidewalk level to the sidewalk level or to a height not to exceed wagon or freight car loading level.
(i) Hand power dumbwaiter shall mean a raising or lowering mechanism operated by hand and equipped with a car or platform, the dimensions of which do not exceed nine square feet in a horizontal section and four feet in height.
(j) Hand hoist shall mean all mechanisms, apparatus and equipment, operated by hand and used for raising or lowering freight (without platform or car) by means of a sling or hook in a hoistway.
(k) Hoistway shall mean any shaft, well-hole, hatchway or other vertical opening or space, unenclosed, partly or wholly enclosed, in which the elevator car or dumbwaiter travels or in which material is raised or lowered by means of a sling or hook.
(l) Landing shall mean that portion of a floor, balcony or platform used to receive or discharge passengers or freight.
(m) Travel shall mean the vertical distance traveled by an elevator, dumbwaiter or hoist from the lowest to the highest landing.
(n) Sliding door or gate shall mean a door or gate sliding in a vertical or horizontal direction.
(o) Self-closing door or gate shall mean a door or gate which is opened manually and which closes automatically through the action of the car as it leaves the landing.
(p) Full automatic door or gate shall mean a door or gate which is opened automatically by the action of the elevator car approaching any landing and closed automatically through the action of the car as it leaves or passes any landing.
(q) Fire door means a door so constructed and of such material as specified in section 8-2.18.
(r) Owner means the owner or owners of the freehold of the premises, or the lessee or joint lessees of the whole thereof, or his, her or their agent in charge of the property.
(s) Tenant means the person, firm or corporation in actual possession of the premises.

§ 8-2.2 Responsibility.

(a) The owner shall be responsible for the observance, and punishable for the non-observance, of the following sections, anything in any lease to the contrary notwithstanding, namely: 8-2.3, 8-2.4, 8-2.5, 8-2.6, 8-2.7, 8-2.8, 8-2.9, 8-2.12, 8-2.13, 8-2.14, 8-2.15, 8-2.16, 8-2.17, 8-2.18, 8-2.19, 8-2.20, 8-2.21, 8-2.22, 8-2.23, 8-2.24, 8-2.25, 8-2.26, 8-2.27, 8-2.28, 8-2.29 (except: subd. [e], par. [2]; subd. [g], par. [4]), 8-2.30 (except: subd. [f], pars. [4-6]).
(b) The tenant shall be responsible for the observance and punishable for the non-observance of the following sections, namely: 8-2.10, 8-2.30 (subd. [f], pars. [4-6]).
(c) Both the owner and tenant shall be responsible for the observance, and punishable for the non-observance, of the following sections, anything in the lease to the contrary notwithstanding, namely: 8-2.11, 8-2.29 (subd. [e], par. [2]; subd. [g], par. [4]).

§ 8-2.3 Approval of plans.

(a) Before any hoistway shall hereafter be constructed, the architect, owner or contractor shall file with the Department of Labor two sets of plans showing its location and construction, and on forms provided by the Department of Labor specifications in triplicate of hoistway, hoistway gate and door construction.
(b) Before any hand-powered elevator shall hereafter be installed, the architect or contractor for such work or the owner if making such installation shall file with the Department of Labor two sets of plans showing the location of machinery and equipment to be installed and on form provided by the Department of Labor specifications in triplicate of the following: capacity and speed, weight of car complete, method of operating, type of limiting stops and switches, diameter of sheaves, size and number of hoisting and counterweight ropes, type of safeties, overhead and pit clearances, type of machine and overhead grating, and the construction of hoistway gates or doors and car gates or doors when required.
(c) No hand-power elevator shall hereafter be installed without approval of the plans and specifications of the installation and hoistway construction by the Department of Labor.

§ 8-2.4 Test.

(a) The person or firm making such installation shall notify the commissioner in writing, at least three days before completion of the installation, and shall in the presence of a representative of the commissioner subject the elevator to the test prescribed in subdivisions (b) and (c) of this section.
(b) The cars of all elevators shall be loaded to their maximum carrying capacity and operated up and down the hoistway several times to test the machine. The car shall be stopped at various levels in the hoistway to test the operation of the machine brake.
(c) The car safeties of all elevators shall be tested by slacking the hoisting cables.
(d) Certificate of approval. If the elevator passes such test satisfactorily, the Industrial Commissioner shall issue a certificate to that effect, which shall bear the date of issue and the same shall be posted in a conspicuous place in the car.
(e) If a representative of the Department of Labor cannot be present at the tests on the date inspection is requested, the commissioner shall immediately so notify the sender of such notice, who shall then make such tests. Upon receipt of a report certified to by the contractor or owner making such installation, that the tests have been made in accordance with the requirements of this section, the commissioner may issue a certificate to that effect if the elevator passed such tests satisfactorily.

§ 8-2.5 Travel limit.

Hand power elevators may be used for travel not to exceed 75 feet between terminal landings.

§ 8-2.6 Power attachments.

No installations of power attachments shall be permitted.

§ 8-2.7 Brakes.

All hand power freight elevator machines shall be equipped with a hand operated self-locking brake or an automatic brake operating in both directions of travel and of ample power to securely hold the maximum load.

§ 8-2.8 Speed retarders.

Where car travel exceeds 40 feet, elevator machines having hand operated brake shall also be equipped with automatic speed retarder which will prevent excessive speed in either direction.

§ 8-2.9 Maintenance.

All parts of the elevator machinery, the hoistway, the doors and gates, car safeties and safety devices shall be kept in good condition.

§ 8-2.10 Wedged doors or gates.

No hoistway door or gate shall be wedged or otherwise fastened in an open position except as provided in subdivision (f) of section 8-2.18.

§ 8-2.11 Closed doors or gates.

All hoistway doors or gates shall be kept closed.
Exceptions: (1) At a landing while used for operating and for loading and unloading. (2) Fire doors when held open by fusible link where permitted in subdivision (f) of section 8-2.18.

§ 8-2.12 Signs.

(a) All elevator cars shall have a sign posted conspicuously which shall show the maximum rated load that can be carried on the elevator.
(b) All freight elevator cars shall have a sign posted conspicuously reading as follows:
"Passengers Not Permitted".
(c) All signs, except capacity signs, shall consist of letters not less than one inch in height.
(d) Manually operated doors or gates of freight elevator hoistways, shall be provided with a sign posted conspicuously on the landing side of the doors or gate:
"Elevator-Keep This Shut".
Exceptions: (1) Fire doors when held back by fusible link where permitted in subdivision (f) of section 8-2.18. (2) Doors equipped with interlocks.

HOISTWAYS

§ 8-2.13 Enclosure.

In factory buildings erected before October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before November 1, 1920.
(a) The side or sides of hoistways where there are no landings shall have enclosures extending from floor not less than 72 inches high.

(b) The landing sides shall have self-closing sliding doors or gates or manually operated swinging doors or gates.

(c) Where the entrance to the elevator is on the street or outside of a building at the ground floor, it shall be provided with a self-closing door or gate not less than 66 inches in height and shall extend to the floor level across its entire width.

§ 8-2.14 Construction.

In factory buildings erected before October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before November 1, 1920.
(a) Enclosures shall be by means of walls, mesh work, grille work, or slatted partitions, set flush with all floor openings at landings and flush with the line of the hoistway at each side, except that landing gates of an approved type may be operated inside of hoistway.

(b) Wire mesh when used shall be not less than No. 10 U.S. gauge; expanded metal when used shall be not less than No. 13 U.S. gauge; the openings shall not exceed one and one-half inches.

(c) When grille work is used there shall be not more than one and one-half inch space between any two members, except where plain straight bars are used not filled in with scroll there shall be not more than one inch space between members.

(d) Wood slats shall be not less than seven-eighths inch thick spaced not more than three inches between slats.

(e) All of the above shall be properly braced and fastened.

§ 8-2.15 Trap doors.

In factory buildings erected before October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before November 1, 1920.
Hoistways for freight elevators provided with trap doors capable of sustaining a load of not less than 50 pounds per square foot when closed, and so arranged as to open and close with the passage of the car, will be accepted in lieu of the enclosure herein required, provided that in addition to such trap doors the hoistway shall be adequately protected on all sides, all floors, with a standard railing as provided in section 8-1.54, or enclosure at least 42 inches high; on sides used for loading and unloading, self-closing gates not less than 42 inches high shall be provided.

§ 8-2.16 Enclosure and construction.

In factory buildings erected after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected after November 1, 1920.
(a) All hoistways, except where exempt by the [Labor] Law in article 1, subdivisions 9, 10 and 11 of section 2, also article 11, section 270, shall be enclosed throughout their height by enclosures of fireproof materials. Every such enclosure shall be set flush with the hoistway line on all landing sides and shall have a roof of fireproof material, and if the enclosure extends to the top story it shall be continued to three feet above the roof, and shall have at the top a skylight in a metal frame at least three-fourths of the area of the shaft or exterior window with metal frame and sash.

(b) The bottom of the hoistway shall be of fireproof material unless the enclosure extends to the cellar bottom.

(c) All openings in such enclosure shall be provided with fire doors. (See §8-2.18.)

(d) Where elevator shafts which are required to be enclosed are contiguous no wall is required between them; except that a partition or screen not less than six feet high shall be provided at the bottom of pit between adjacent shafts.

(e) Where the entrance to the elevator is on the street or outside of a building at the ground floor, the gate or door shall be not less than 66 inches high and shall extend to the floor level across its entire width.
Exception: This rule as to fireproof enclosures and fire doors shall not apply to hand power sidewalk elevators.


HOISTWAY GATES

§ 8-2.17 Construction.

In factory buildings erected before or after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before or after November 1, 1920.
(a) Landing gates shall be not less than 42 inches high and placed as close to the hoistway line as possible, shall be made of metal or of hard wood, and shall be strong and rigid. The joints of wood gate frames shall be strong and reinforced with metal.
Exceptions: (1) In existing installations, gates not less than 30 inches high may remain as installed provided telltale chains not less than 36 inches long on six inch centers are suspended from the bottom of the car platform across the full width of the opening. (2) Hinged doors or gates with a swinging motion shall be manually closing and shall be equipped with a lock or latch. All such doors shall be closed before the car leaves the landing.


(b) Gates shall operate in substantial guides of wood or metal construction, but the guide shoes on gates in all cases shall be of metal. Gates shall be so guided that the shoe on the gate will have a lap of at least one inch on the strip. Such gates shall be properly balanced and hung with substantial pleated cord or cable and pulleys. Full automatic gates may be used at terminal landings only.

(c) Counterweights for such gates shall be entirely enclosed on exposed sides.

(d) Where gates are made of vertical or horizontal slats or strips, the distance between such slats or strips shall not exceed two inches. Where gates are made of wire mesh construction, the mesh shall be of such dimensions that it will reject a ball two inches in diameter. They shall be of such construction as to resist 150 pounds of pressure without permanent deformation.

HOISTWAY DOORS

§ 8-2.18 Fire doors.

In factory buildings erected after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected after November 1, 1920.
Fire doors are doors of any of the following materials and form of construction:
(a) Tin clad. Three thicknesses of one-quarter inch dressed, tongued and grooved white pine or other non-resinous wood board not more than eight inches wide, securely clinched with wrought iron nails, and covered with 14 inches by 20 inches sheets of terne plate, of at least 1C quality, joints locked full one-half inch and nailed under seams with at least 12 1/2 inch gauge flat head, full barbed wire nails, two inches long.

(b) Plate iron. Wrought iron or steel plates at least three-sixteenths inch thick, having two inch by two inch by three-eighths angle iron stiles and rails, center rails and center stiles on one face or three inch by one-quarter inch flat bar stiles and rails on both faces; no unstiffened panel shall be more than nine square feet in area; all parts shall be securely riveted with three-eighths inch iron rivets.

(c) Composite. A skeleton framework of at least one and one-half inch by one-quarter inch channels, angles or T's, covered on both sides with at least one-eighth inch wrought iron or steel plates, filled solid with mineral fibre, asbestos, gypsum or other incombustible material.

(d) Or, any form of door construction that shall have successfully passed a standard one hour fire and water test.

(e) The name of the manufacturer shall be placed on every fire door in such manner as to be easily seen when door is in place.

(f) All fire doors shall be self-closing and shall be provided with approved incombustible sills, frames and hardware, or, in lieu of frames, shall lap the sides and top of openings at least four inches. Sliding doors shall lap the sides and top of openings at least four inches.
Exception: To permit the operation of the pull rope from the floor landing, one fire door may be held open by a fusible link at any floor selected by the owner, when such pull rope and the brake line are located inside of the hoistway. Such hoistway opening shall be provided with an auxiliary gate, self-closing, not less than 42 inches in height, constructed in with section 8-2.17 and may be full automatic when installed at either of the terminal landings.



OVER TRAVEL

§ 8-2.19 Minimum required.

A minimum over travel of 12 inches shall be provided at the top.
Exceptions: (1) In installations where the head room under a ceiling or roof is not sufficient to allow 12 inches overrun, the car counterweight shall be arranged to inches before car beam strikes the overhead work. (2) Hand power dumbwaiters.

PENTHOUSES

§ 8-2.20 Requirements.

In factory buildings erected after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected after November 1, 1920.
(a) Penthouses hereafter constructed shall be of fireproof material.

In factory buildings erected before or after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before or after November 1, 1920.
(b) Penthouses shall be provided with adequate artificial light; lighting switches shall be within easy reach at the entrance.

(c) A safe and convenient means of access shall be provided to all penthouses. Where entrance is more than four feet above roof, an iron ladder or stairs, the angle of which shall not exceed 60 degrees from the horizontal, shall be provided. The ladder or stairs and balcony shall have a handrail, not less than three feet, six inches in height. Where entrance door opens outwardly, a platform not less than two feet square and not more than eight inches below door sill shall be provided.

(d) Entrance to penthouse shall be kept locked except when used as a required means of exit.

(e) Where a penthouse is used as the sole means of access to the roof or as a required means of exit, the exposed sides of drums, sheaves and cables shall be guarded.

FLOORING

§ 8-2.21 All installations.

(a) At the top of hoistways immediately below the machine or sheaves or at the machine beams, a flooring of iron, steel, concrete or wood capable of sustaining a concentrated load of 300 pounds, shall be provided.
Exceptions: (1) The floor or guard need not extend under the hand rope pull wheel. (2) Hoistway protected at each floor by automatic trap doors. (3) Sidewalk elevators outside of building line. (4) Dumbwaiters.

(b) If metal grating is used, the spacing between members shall not exceed one and one-quarter inches.
(c) If grating members are laid flat, they shall be supported by battens spaced not more than 48 inches apart.
(d) If grating members are placed on edge, thimbles strung on metal rods running through the members shall be provided; the rods shall be riveted at the ends and spaced not more than 48 inches apart.
(e) The grating or flooring may fill the entire hoistway, otherwise the same shall extend not less than 24 inches beyond the general contour of the sheaves or machine and to the entrance to the hoistway at or above the level of the flooring.
(f) When the grating or flooring does not entirely cover the horizontal area of the hoistway, the open or exposed sides shall be provided with a standard railing, as specified in section 8-1.54, and a toeboard.
(g) Deflecting sheaves or other moving parts extending below the machine level shall be protected by cradles not greater than one-half inch mesh, not less than No.10 gauge wire or its equivalent in strength.

GUIDE RAILS

§ 8-2.22 General.

(a) In future installations guide rails for both car and counterweight of all elevators shall be steel or hard wood.
(b) Guide rails shall be securely fastened and of such strength, design and spacing between supports so the guide rails shall not deflect more than three-fourths inch under normal operation. They shall withstand the application of the "safety" when stopping a fully loaded car.
(c) The guiding surfaces of the guide rails for elevators, except platform elevators, shall be finished smooth.
(d) Wood guides for crossheads shall have not less than two and one-half square inches of sectional area and the minimum dimension shall be not less than one and one-half inches. Counterweights for such cars shall have guides with not less than one and one-quarter inches minimum dimension.
(e) Wood guides for platform elevators shall have not less than four square inches sectional area and the minimum dimension shall be not less than one and seven-eighths inches.
(f) Counterweight guides for platform elevators shall have not less than one and one-half inches minimum dimension.
(g) Steel car guide rails shall weigh not less than six and one-half pounds per foot.

MACHINES AND SHEAVES

§ 8-2.23 Safety.

(a) The elevator machinery and sheaves shall have an ample factor of safety for the rated elevator capacity and shall be installed in a substantial manner.
(b) Guarding. Machines and parts of machines shall be guarded in accordance with Industrial Code rules 875 to 920 inclusive, relating to guarding of dangerous machinery.
FOOTNOTE - Industrial Code rules relating to the guarding of dangerous machinery, vats, pans and elevated runways, have been amended subsequent to the adoption of these rules, and have been re-numbered.

CARS AND CAR SAFETIES

§ 8-2.24 Passenger cars.

In factory buildings erected before or after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before or after November 1, 1920.
(a) Enclosure. Passenger elevator cars shall be fully and substantially enclosed on all sides, including the top, except on landing sides.

(b) The car and car frames may be of wood or metal, or both wood and metal, and shall be strongly braced and bolted.

(c) The carrying capacity of such elevators hereafter installed shall be not less than 50 pounds for each square foot of floor area inside car.

§ 8-2.25 Freight cars.

In factory buildings erected before or after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before or after November 1, 1920.
(a) Enclosure.The car and car frames may be of wood, metal, or both wood and metal, and shall be strongly braced and bolted.

(b) The cars of all hand power freight elevators shall be enclosed on other than landing sides, to a height not less than 42 inches.
Exceptions: (1) Platform or sidewalk elevators. (2) The sides of car where hoistway enclosure extends from floor to ceiling and is flush with hoistway line.


(c) The enclosure shall be of wood or metal, solid or open work; if open work is used, the spacing between parallel members shall be not more than one inch.

(d) Where wood is used for car enclosure it shall be not less than seven-eighths inch in thickness.

§ 8-2.26 Car safeties.

In factory buildings erected before or after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before or after November 1, 1920.
All elevator cars, the travel of which exceeds 25 feet, shall be equipped with a safety device of an approved type, attached to the car frame beneath the platform or on the car beam.

Exception: Dumbwaiters.

§ 8-2.27 Counterweights.

In factory buildings erected before or after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before or after November 1, 1920.
(a) Counterweights that run in the same hoistway as the car shall be guarded throughout their travel unless there is a car enclosure on counterweight side, in which case a bottom shield not less than five feet high shall be provided.

(b) Counterweights that pass through the floors outside of hoistway shall be guarded on exposed sides to a height of six feet from the floor.

§ 8-2.28 Cables.

In factory buildings erected before or after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before or after November 1, 1920.
(a) All elevator cars shall be suspended by not less than two cables with independent fastenings. Car and counterweight cables and their fastenings shall have a factor of safety of not less than six.

(b) Sidewalk elevator cars or platforms may be suspended by chains.

HAND POWER DUMBWAITERS

§ 8-2.29 Hoistways.

In factory buildings erected before October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before November 1, 1920.
(a) Hoistways shall be enclosed on all sides not used for loading to a height of not less than 72 inches from each floor.
Exception: At the upper floor of the hoistway enclosure may terminate level with the floor of the dumbwaiter when at its highest point of travel; minimum height of the enclosure on all sides shall be 30 inches. Where the counterweight travels higher, the intervening space between the bottom of the counterweight and the hoist enclosure shall be guarded.


(b) On loading sides the enclosure shall extend from floor to ceiling except that portion necessary for gates or doors.
Exceptions: (1) Existing enclosures on loading sides not less than 72 inches high may remain as installed. (2) At the upper floor the hoistway enclosure may terminate level with the floor of the dumbwaiter when at its highest point of travel; minimum height of the enclosure on all sides shall be 30 inches. Where the counterweight travels higher, the intervening space between the bottom of the counterweight and the hoist enclosure shall be guarded.


(c) Hoistway enclosures shall be walls, mesh work, grille work or slatted partitions.

(d) All openings in the hoistway enclosure shall be provided with doors or gates. The width of the door or gate shall not exceed the width of dumbwaiter more than six inches. The maximum height of the hoistway door opening for any height car shall be 54 inches and the bottom of such opening shall be not less than 30 inches from the floor.

(e) Hoistway doors and gates.
(1) Hoistway doors or gates shall be self-closing or manually operated.

(2) All hoistway doors or gates shall be kept closed except the door used for operating the dumbwaiter.

(3) A sign with letters not less than one inch high reading: "Danger! Keep Door Closed" shall be posted or painted on each hoistway door.


(f) Machinery and hoist ropes.
(1) All dumbwaiter machinery and attachments shall be made sufficiently strong for the purpose intended and shall be properly installed and maintained.

(2) All dumbwaiters hereafter installed shall have self-locking brakes.

(3) There shall be posted or painted on the front of each dumbwaiter car a capacity sign with letters and figures not less than one-half inch high, thus: "Capacity . . . lbs."

(4) The hoist ropes or cables shall have a factor of safety of not less than six.


In factory buildings erected after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected after November 1, 1920.
(g) Hoistway.
(1) The hoistway shall be enclosed in fireproof partitions conforming to the specifications of section 8-1.61.

(2) All openings in the hoistway enclosure shall be provided with fire doors (§8-1.62); the width of the door shall not exceed with the width of the dumbwaiter more than six inches. The maximum height of the hoistway door opening for any height car shall be 54 inches; the bottom of such opening shall be not less than 30 inches from the floor.

(3) The hoistway doors shall be self-closing or manually operated.

(4) All hoistway doors shall be kept closed except the door used for operating the dumbwaiter.

(5) Each manually operated hoistway door shall have a fusible link in the counterweight chain or latch used for holding the door open while in use so located as to readily release from excessive heat through the opening.

(6) A sign with letters not less than one inch high reading: "Danger! Keep Door Closed" shall be posted or painted on each hoistway door.

(h) Machinery and hoist ropes.
(1) All dumbwaiter machinery and attachments shall be made sufficiently strong for the purpose intended and shall be properly installed and maintained.

(2) All dumbwaiters hereafter installed shall have self-locking brakes.

(3) There shall be posted or painted on the front of each dumbwaiter car, a capacity sign with letters and figures not less than one-half inch high, thus: "Capacity . . . lbs."

(4) The hoist ropes or cables shall have a factor of safety of not less than six.

HAND POWER HOISTS

§ 8-2.30 Floor openings and enclosures.

In factory buildings erected before October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected before November 1, 1920.
(a) Floor openings for hoistway used for raising or lowering freight by means of a sling or hook shall be enclosed on all sides by a standard railing with toeboard or a vertical enclosure not less than 42 inches high, set not to exceed 12 inches from the hoistway line. (For requirements of standard railing, see §8-1.54.)

(b) Where trap doors are used, they shall be capable of sustaining a load of not less than 50 pounds per square foot when closed, and arranged to be opened and closed without entering enclosures.

(c) In existing installations where it is necessary to maintain a passageway under a hoist, in a stairway, hallway or exit, there shall be provided over the lowest terminal a substantial floor or bulkhead capable of sustaining a load of not less than 100 pounds per square foot and located so as to provide headroom of not less than 78 inches from the floor of the passageway, or there shall be provided some other protection or guard when approved by the Industrial Commissioner.

(d) In future installations no hoist shall be permitted to descend into a hallway, stairway or exit.

In factory buildings erected after October 1, 1913; in mercantile establishments in buildings erected after November 1, 1920.
(e) Hoistway enclosures.
(1) Hoistways used for raising or lowering freight by means of a sling or hook shall be enclosed throughout their height in fire-proof partitions conforming to the specifications of section 8-1.61.

(2) All hoistway openings shall be protected by fire doors.

(3) The hoistway doors shall be self-closing. All such doors shall be kept closed except while used for loading or unloading.

(4) Such self-closing hoistway doors shall have a fusible link in the counterweight chain or latch used for holding the door open while in use, so located as to readily release from excessive heat through the opening.


(f) Machinery and equipment.
(1) There shall be posted or painted on each hoistway door a capacity sign with letters an figures not less than one-half inch high, thus: "Capacity . . . lbs."

(2) All hoisting machinery shall be sufficiently strong for the purpose intended and shall be properly installed and maintained.

(3) All hoist cables or ropes shall have a factor of safety of not less than four.

(4) Riding on any material, hoist or sliding down hoisting ropes or chains is prohibited. A notice to this effect shall be posted adjacent to the hoistway on each floor.

(5) No load shall be allowed to descend at an excessive speed.

(6) Slings shall be carefully and symmetrically placed about loads, proper hitches being made so that there will be no opportunity for the load to slip or tip.


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